Metabolism of major cell components during slime mold morphogenesis.
ABSTRACT Morphogenetically synchronized Dictyostelium discoideum amoeba were sampled at intervals during development to determine the fates of major cell constituents. Dry weight, total protein and fractions thereof, RNA, free and bound hexoses were followed. None of these except the last appeared to reflect the specific morphogenetic events. Two polysaccharide fractions were encountered which did reflect these events and their syntheses were repressed or disturbed in morphogenetically deficient mutants.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ammonia has been shown to function as a morphogen at multiple steps during the development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum; however, it is largely unknown how intracellular ammonia levels are controlled. In the Dictyostelium genome, there are five genes that encode putative ammonium transporters: amtA, amtB, amtC, rhgA, and rhgB. Here, we show that AmtA regulates ammonia homeostasis during growth and development. We found that cells lacking amtA had increased levels of ammonia/ammonium, whereas their extracellular ammonia/ammonium levels were highly decreased. These results suggest that AmtA mediates the excretion of ammonium. In support of a role for AmtA in ammonia homeostasis, AmtA mRNA is expressed throughout the life cycle, and its expression level increases during development. Importantly, AmtA-mediated ammonia homeostasis is critical for many developmental processes. amtA(-) cells are more sensitive to NH(4)Cl than wild-type cells in inhibition of chemotaxis toward cyclic AMP and of formation of multicellular aggregates. Furthermore, even in the absence of exogenously added ammonia, we found that amtA(-) cells produced many small fruiting bodies and that the viability and germination of amtA(-) spores were dramatically compromised. Taken together, our data clearly demonstrate that AmtA regulates ammonia homeostasis and plays important roles in multiple developmental processes in Dictyostelium.Eukaryotic Cell 01/2008; 6(12):2419-28. · 3.59 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: SYNOPSIS. Some aspects of the physiology of encystment of the soil amoeba Hartmannella castellanii in a replacement encystment medium consisting of 5 × 10-2 M MgCl2 have been investigated. It is suggested that measurement of the cellulose produced during encystment in the synthesis of the cyst wall is a more reliable measure of the process than other methods tried.The degree of encystment was dependent on the physiologic state of the amoebae and the composition of the growth medium, but the initial pH of the encystment medium (C. 4.0-8.5) had little effect on the process. The requirement for Mg during encystment was probably not due to its deficiency during growth. Encystment was inhibited to varying extents by inhibitors of protein synthesis, tetracycline and chloramphenicol and also by arsenate, arsenite and iodoacetate; sodium fluoride, malonate and 2, 4-dinitrophenol were without marked effect.Addition of glucose and α-ketoglutarate to the replacement medium led to improvement in the encystment response. The presence of glutamate and histidine during encystment led to cell death. Other carbon and nitrogen sources had no effect.During encystment there was an increase in the metabolic activity of the amoebae, as measured by their oxygen consumption. This was accompanied by a decrease of about 40% in cellular dry weight and protein content. Of the other chemical components, there were marked initial increases in the levels of total carbohydrates and pentose which were followed by their depletion during cellulose synthesis.Encystment was completed after about 64 hr when the synthesis of cellulose was complete and the oxygen uptake of the amoebae fell to an immeasurable level.Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 04/2007; 16(1):93 - 99. · 2.16 Impact Factor
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 102(3):637 - 654. · 4.38 Impact Factor