"In fixed-ratio (FR) schedules the most common finding is a direct relation between number of responses and ratio size for low to moderate ratio values. For example, between FR 1 and FR 20, increased ratio requirement for a food reward is accompanied by increased key pecking in pigeons (Ferster and Skinner, 1957; Findley, 1962), and manipulation responses in rats (Barofsky and Hurwitz, 1968; Boren, 1961; Collier, Hirsch and Hamlin, 1972; Teitelbaum, 1957), gerbils (Vanderweele, Abelson, and Tellish, 1973), guinea pigs (Hirsch and Collier, 1974), goldfish (Rozin and Mayer, 1964), monkeys (Findley , 1959; Hamilton and Brobeck, 1964), and humans (Hutchinson and Azrin, 1961). A further increase in ratio size often produces a decline in number of "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 1980 international conference on the Biology and Culture of Tilapias held in Bellagio, Italy, was a unique gathering of biologists and culturists to review existing information on tilapias and to suggest profitable areas for future work.
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