SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING SHORT-TERM FOOD INTAKE OF THE GOLDFISH.
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ABSTRACT: Rainbow trout learned quickly to operate a trigger to deliver dry food and showed a peak of feeding at dusk, but also appreciable nocturnal feeding. Food deliveries were aggregated into feeding bouts with a preferred time between trigger presses of 4–8 min; the aggregation of feeds was more marked in groups of trout than with trout held singly. Total daily food intake varied with the reward level per trigger press, and could therefore be controlled at about the manufacturers recommended feeding levels. Territorial and hierarchical behaviour were observed and in groups of up to 20 trout only one member of the group pressed the trigger although all the fish took the food delivered, and there was no evidence that smaller fish in a group were deprived of food to the point at which they lost condition.Aquaculture 01/1976; 7(1):11-25. DOI:10.1016/0044-8486(76)90028-4 · 1.83 Impact Factor
Marine Ecology Progress Series 01/1983; 12(3):207-216. DOI:10.3354/meps012207 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rainbow trout with an initial weight of 1.1 – 1.2 kg were fed an extruded high energy food using demand feeding and timer-controlled feeding techniques, during 4 summer months, in full-scale netpen farming conditions. Unrestricted and restricted demand feeding techniques were tested. The time-rcontrolled feeding was tested at a corresponding restricted level.There were no statistically significant differences in growth rate between trout fed restricted and unrestricted rations using the demand feeding technique. Trout fed using the timer-controlled technique exhibited a significantly lower growth rate compared with fish fed using demand feeders. Trout fed using the demand feeding technique and restricted rations had the best feed conversion, with a mean value of 1.08 during the experiment (feed conversion = kg food supplied/kg weight gain). The feeding of trout using the unrestricted demand feeding technique resulted in a feed conversion of 1.49, and using restricted timer-controlled feeding it was 1.36. The feed conversion in the unrestricted demand feeding groups was correlated with water temperature, indicating that the ability of the trout to regulate the feeders at a level where food losses were minimized, was temperature dependent. It is suggested that the feeding of fish, using a timer-controlled technique and restricted food rations, with short and regular feeding intervals induces stress and high competition for food. This consequently leads to increased swimming activity and metabolic energy losses.Aquaculture 12/1992; 108(3-4):347-356. DOI:10.1016/0044-8486(92)90118-5 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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