The Indian veterinary journal (Impact Factor: 0.06). 06/1965; 42:320-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Fish meal is a good source of protein feed that can be used to get a high production yield even though it has a comparatively higher price. Plant protein has been found to substitute for fish meal without any adverse effect on production as well as helping to reduce feed cost. Moreover, it is not necessary for a level more than 5% fish meal in the diet of laying ducks. One type of plant protein is soybean meal, considered one of the most valuable sources of vegetable protein and whose amino acid composition is comparable to that of milk protein. In a soybean meal, the first limiting amino acid is methionine. Soybean meal can substitute for fish meal in laying ducks' diet but supplementation of methionine and lysine is recommended. Since sesame meal is rich in methionine and agrinine, 50% of soybean meal can be replaced by sesame meal without adverse effects. Leucaena leaf meal is also a valuable source of protein (26%) and carotenoids but it also has a toxic amino acid (mimosine). However, soaking leucaena leaf meal in water can remove the toxic amino acid and can be used, together with added methionine and lysine, as 10% of the diet for laying ducks.
    Animal Science Journal 07/2007; 78(4):351 - 355. DOI:10.1111/j.1740-0929.2007.00447.x · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to document the detailed features of the nasal cavity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) by the use of ten mature quails. The heads of the birds were sectioned slightly paramedially and transversally in rostro-caudal sequence. Then, sections were placed in 0.1% methylene blue for 15 min followed by 50% and 70% ethyl alcohol series, respectively. The nasal cavity was formed rostrally by the nostrils which were two narrow longitudinal openings located at the upper part of the base of the beak. They were Nares perviae, a kind of open nares type. The choana possessed two openings communicating the nasal cavity with the oral cavity. The rostral nasal concha was present lying opposite the nostrils, showing, in transverse sections, C-shaped appearance in form with 6.23±0.1 mm long and 3.85±0.2 mm wide dorso-ventrally at its base. The middle nasal concha situated obliquely between the rostral nasal concha and the caudal nasal concha was the largest of all, being 8.32±0.21 mm long and 2.54±0.12 mm wide dorso-ventrally. In cross section, it exhibited a scroll-like structure with one-half turning ventro-laterally. The caudal nasal concha, the smallest one, resembled a hemisphere of 3.2±0.15 mm in diameter with its caudal border attaching to the olfactory region of the nasal cavity, and its cranial edge being free. The septal nasal concha was absent and the infraorbital sinus was highly developed in the Japanese quails examined.
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Energy measurements were made over 4 d on groups of three ducklings (aged from 5 to 22 d), and three broiler chickens (aged from 11 to 32 d) offered high- or low-energy diets. 2. Food, metabolisable energy (ME) and water intakes were significantly higher for ducklings than for chickens. The ratio of water:food was 4-2:1 and 2-3:1 for ducklings and chickens, respectively. The food conversion ratio differed between diets but not species. Performance was generally better for both species on the high-energy diet. 3. Heat production, energy, fat and protein retentions were higher for ducklings than chickens, and ducklings retained 0.44 of their energy as fat compared with 0.37 for chickens. Overall the ratio of protein (g) to fat (g) retention was 2.2:1 and 2.8:1 for ducklings and chickens respectively. 4. For ducklings, metabolisability of the high-energy diet declined from 0.774 to 0.747, and to a lesser extent of the low-energy diet, as they aged. There was no such decline for chickens. Net efficiency of utilisation of ME for gain was 0.64 for ducklings compared with 0.50 for chickens. 5. Fractional retention of dietary nitrogen (N) was 0.62 for ducklings and 0.55 for chickens. Gaseous ammonia-N was 4.5 and 2.2%, respectively, of N retained. 6. In a second experiment groups of ducklings only, were offered high- and low-protein diets from 12 to 22 d of age. Comparisons among four diets showed that food and energy intake was lower on the low-protein diet than on the other three. Energy retention on the high-energy diet was greater (P less than 0.05) than on the other three diets. 7. It was concluded that a high-energy diet is important for ducklings and chickens for maximum biological performance during the first 4 weeks of life.
    British Poultry Science 06/1980; 21(3):213-27. DOI:10.1080/00071668008416659 · 0.78 Impact Factor