[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to document the detailed features of the nasal cavity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) by the use of ten mature quails. The heads of the birds were sectioned slightly paramedially and transversally in rostro-caudal sequence. Then, sections were placed in 0.1% methylene blue for 15 min followed by 50% and 70% ethyl alcohol series, respectively. The nasal cavity was formed rostrally by the nostrils which were two narrow longitudinal openings located at the upper part of the base of the beak. They were Nares perviae, a kind of open nares type. The choana possessed two openings communicating the nasal cavity with the oral cavity. The rostral nasal concha was present lying opposite the nostrils, showing, in transverse sections, C-shaped appearance in form with 6.23±0.1 mm long and 3.85±0.2 mm wide dorso-ventrally at its base. The middle nasal concha situated obliquely between the rostral nasal concha and the caudal nasal concha was the largest of all, being 8.32±0.21 mm long and 2.54±0.12 mm wide dorso-ventrally. In cross section, it exhibited a scroll-like structure with one-half turning ventro-laterally. The caudal nasal concha, the smallest one, resembled a hemisphere of 3.2±0.15 mm in diameter with its caudal border attaching to the olfactory region of the nasal cavity, and its cranial edge being free. The septal nasal concha was absent and the infraorbital sinus was highly developed in the Japanese quails examined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed at observing gross morphological and histological characteristics of the larynx, trachea and syrinx in Coturnix coturnix japonicum (Japanese quail). Sixteen mature quails were divided into two groups. Eight animals were stained with 0.1% methylene blue for 15 min, followed by 50% and 70% ethyl alcohol solution for gross morphological examination. For the observation of histological characteristics the larynx, trachea and syrinx were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Six-micron sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. There were three rows of papillae which were located oral (one row) and aboral (two rows) aspects of the mound. The cricoid cartilage was triangular in shape. Only the inlet of the larynx was covered by the olfactory mucosa whereas the rest was covered by the respiratory mucosa. There were 83-91 tracheal rings which were gradually narrowed from the cranial to the caudal direction. No overlapping occurred between the rings. The last few tracheal rings did not fuse dorsally and formed the tympanium. The pessulus possessed connection with the last tracheal ring and the first bronchial ring. Moreover, it was like a semiprism in shape at the region of bifurcation being vertical in direction. The syrinx was formed by the paired, C-shaped and incomplete bronchial syringeal cartilages. The mucosa of the syrinx was lined with a pseudo-stratified layer of prism-shaped epithelium. There were nine or 14 C-shaped cartilaginous primary bronchi.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Energy measurements were made over 4 d on groups of three ducklings (aged from 5 to 22 d), and three broiler chickens (aged from 11 to 32 d) offered high- or low-energy diets. 2. Food, metabolisable energy (ME) and water intakes were significantly higher for ducklings than for chickens. The ratio of water:food was 4-2:1 and 2-3:1 for ducklings and chickens, respectively. The food conversion ratio differed between diets but not species. Performance was generally better for both species on the high-energy diet. 3. Heat production, energy, fat and protein retentions were higher for ducklings than chickens, and ducklings retained 0.44 of their energy as fat compared with 0.37 for chickens. Overall the ratio of protein (g) to fat (g) retention was 2.2:1 and 2.8:1 for ducklings and chickens respectively. 4. For ducklings, metabolisability of the high-energy diet declined from 0.774 to 0.747, and to a lesser extent of the low-energy diet, as they aged. There was no such decline for chickens. Net efficiency of utilisation of ME for gain was 0.64 for ducklings compared with 0.50 for chickens. 5. Fractional retention of dietary nitrogen (N) was 0.62 for ducklings and 0.55 for chickens. Gaseous ammonia-N was 4.5 and 2.2%, respectively, of N retained. 6. In a second experiment groups of ducklings only, were offered high- and low-protein diets from 12 to 22 d of age. Comparisons among four diets showed that food and energy intake was lower on the low-protein diet than on the other three. Energy retention on the high-energy diet was greater (P less than 0.05) than on the other three diets. 7. It was concluded that a high-energy diet is important for ducklings and chickens for maximum biological performance during the first 4 weeks of life.
British Poultry Science 06/1980; 21(3):213-27. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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