[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to document the detailed features of the nasal cavity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) by the use of ten mature quails. The heads of the birds were sectioned slightly paramedially and transversally in rostro-caudal sequence. Then, sections were placed in 0.1% methylene blue for 15 min followed by 50% and 70% ethyl alcohol series, respectively. The nasal cavity was formed rostrally by the nostrils which were two narrow longitudinal openings located at the upper part of the base of the beak. They were Nares perviae, a kind of open nares type. The choana possessed two openings communicating the nasal cavity with the oral cavity. The rostral nasal concha was present lying opposite the nostrils, showing, in transverse sections, C-shaped appearance in form with 6.23±0.1 mm long and 3.85±0.2 mm wide dorso-ventrally at its base. The middle nasal concha situated obliquely between the rostral nasal concha and the caudal nasal concha was the largest of all, being 8.32±0.21 mm long and 2.54±0.12 mm wide dorso-ventrally. In cross section, it exhibited a scroll-like structure with one-half turning ventro-laterally. The caudal nasal concha, the smallest one, resembled a hemisphere of 3.2±0.15 mm in diameter with its caudal border attaching to the olfactory region of the nasal cavity, and its cranial edge being free. The septal nasal concha was absent and the infraorbital sinus was highly developed in the Japanese quails examined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Energy measurements were made over 4 d on groups of three ducklings (aged from 5 to 22 d), and three broiler chickens (aged from 11 to 32 d) offered high- or low-energy diets. 2. Food, metabolisable energy (ME) and water intakes were significantly higher for ducklings than for chickens. The ratio of water:food was 4-2:1 and 2-3:1 for ducklings and chickens, respectively. The food conversion ratio differed between diets but not species. Performance was generally better for both species on the high-energy diet. 3. Heat production, energy, fat and protein retentions were higher for ducklings than chickens, and ducklings retained 0.44 of their energy as fat compared with 0.37 for chickens. Overall the ratio of protein (g) to fat (g) retention was 2.2:1 and 2.8:1 for ducklings and chickens respectively. 4. For ducklings, metabolisability of the high-energy diet declined from 0.774 to 0.747, and to a lesser extent of the low-energy diet, as they aged. There was no such decline for chickens. Net efficiency of utilisation of ME for gain was 0.64 for ducklings compared with 0.50 for chickens. 5. Fractional retention of dietary nitrogen (N) was 0.62 for ducklings and 0.55 for chickens. Gaseous ammonia-N was 4.5 and 2.2%, respectively, of N retained. 6. In a second experiment groups of ducklings only, were offered high- and low-protein diets from 12 to 22 d of age. Comparisons among four diets showed that food and energy intake was lower on the low-protein diet than on the other three. Energy retention on the high-energy diet was greater (P less than 0.05) than on the other three diets. 7. It was concluded that a high-energy diet is important for ducklings and chickens for maximum biological performance during the first 4 weeks of life.
British Poultry Science 06/1980; 21(3):213-27. DOI:10.1080/00071668008416659 · 0.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth performance and nutrient utilization responses of White Pekin ducks to a commercial enzyme preparation were investigated. The enzyme contained 4,000 units amylase, 12,000 units protease, and 1,600 units xylanase per gram. Twelve pens of 10 ducks were fed diets based on corn and soybean meal and wheat middlings. The diets contained the enzyme mixture at 0, 0.375, or 0.5 g/kg in a growth study for 42 d. At the end of growth study, four ducks from each of eight pens per diet were retained and continued their respective diets containing 2.5 g Cr2O3/kg for 7 d. Intestinal content was sampled to determine ileal digestibilities of energy, nitrogen, and amino acids. One duck from each pen was selected at the end of the growth study and was fitted with retainer rings around the vent for the attachment of an excreta collection apparatus; these ducks were maintained on their respective diets containing 2.5 g Cr2O3/ kg to determine dietary nitrogen, amino acids, and energy retention. Results from the performance study showed a 6 to 8% increase (P < 0.05) in BW gain for birds fed diets containing the enzyme. There was also an enzyme-related improvement in feed efficiency (P < 0.05) over the 42-d study. Ileal nitrogen digestibility was highest (P < 0.05) for ducks fed diets containing the enzyme preparation at 0.5 g/kg, but ileal digestibility of energy was not affected by enzyme supplementation of diets. Apparent nitrogen retention was greater (P < 0.05) in ducks that received enzyme at 0.5 g/kg diet than in ducks fed diets without the enzyme. Energy retention (AME and AMEn) of diets was not affected by the addition of enzyme to diets. Excreta amino acid digestibilities were found to be consistently higher than ileal estimates. The mean ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients in diets with enzyme at 0, 0.375, and 0.5 g/kg were 86.94, 88.82, and 88.87%, respectively. The addition of enzyme improved (P < 0.05) ileal amino acid digestibility and apparent amino acid retention. The study indicates that dietary enzyme supplementation improved growth performance, nitrogen, and amino acid retention of White Pekin ducks.
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