The interrelationship of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and pyometra in the dog.

American Journal of Veterinary Research (Impact Factor: 1.21). 02/1960; 21:120-7.
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    • "Since the 1950s, development of diabetes shortly after estrus has been well recognized in bitches and ovariohysterectomy (OHE) has been recommended as radical treatment of CDM (Campbell, 1958; Wilkinson , 1960). In the 1960s, Krook et al. (1960) first correlated CDM with pyometra, another typical condition associated with diestrus (Noakes et al., 2001) characterized by purulent fluid collection within the uterus with variable amounts of inflammatory cells in the uterine wall, that may or may not be preceded by cystic endometrial hyperplasia (Feldman and Nelson, 2004). Although insulin resistance mediated by progesterone is well characterized (Scaramal et al., 1997; Connolly et al., 2004; Batista et al., 2005), there is a paucity of case reports correlating CDM with diestrus, and mainly on its remission after spaying (Fall et al., 2008, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Canine diabetes mellitus (CDM) remission is a rare event that is possible after the resolution of insulin resistance conditions, especially those related to the estrus cycle. A retrospective study was carried out at the Division of Veterinary Endocrinology from 2006 to 2011 to assess CDM remission rates after the resolution of problems associated with ovarian activity. Out of 117 female dogs diagnosed with CDM, six diabetes remission cases were identified and described after resolution of diestrus (1), or after ovariohysterectomy for pregnancy (1), ovarian remnant syndrome (1), and pyometra (3), even after initial presentation in severe diabetic ketosis or long after diagnosis (ovariohysterectomy was performed from 3 to 81days after diagnosis, and diabetes resolution was achieved within 4-39days after gonadectomy). Several factors may lead to diabetes remission. However, in these cases, ovariohysterectomy was crucial for the restoration of normal blood glucose levels, suggesting that diabetic bitches be spayed independently of the length of time after diagnosis.
    Research in Veterinary Science 11/2012; 94(3). DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2012.10.008
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    • "Two of the cited studies are 20 - 40 years old , and one study was performed in the last decade ( Ewald , 1961 ; Krook , Larsson & Rooney , 1960 ; Niskanen & Thrusfield , 1998 ) . Ewald ( 1961 ) and Krook , Larsson & Rooney ( 1960 ) compared hospital cases and Swedish cases of pyometra from post mortem examination cases , respectively . These authors compared dogs with and without pyometra in their analyses . "
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    ABSTRACT: Pyometra is a common and lethal disease in bitches characterised by uterine bacterial infection leading to subsequent systemic illness. The objectives of the present thesis were to investigate the incidence of the disease in relation to breed and age, to assess bacteriological aspects of pyometra and to evaluate the involvement of endotoxin and prostaglandin F2α in the pathogenesis. Animal insurance data revealed age- and breed-dependent differences in the incidence of pyometra. On average 23-24% of all bitches studied experienced pyometra before 10 years of age. Data presented in this study indicate that certain breeds have a genetic pre-disposition for pyometra. Bacteriological genotype examinations showed that pyometra is most likely caused by Escherichia coli clones originating from the normal flora of each dog, i.e. not by clones spreading between animals. The resistance among E. coli isolates from pyometra bitches against antimicrobials commonly used in canine practice was low and not likely to cause therapy failure. Data on antimicrobial resistance of E. coli from urinary tract infections were generally not suitable for selecting antimicrobial treatment of pyometra. Systemic endotoxemia was confirmed in bitches with pyometra. The plasma levels of endotoxin were correlated with concentrations of the prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PG-metabolite). This indicates the usefulness of PG-metabolite in the diagnosis of endotoxemia in bitches. Bitches with pyometra also had increased blood concentrations of PG-metabolite compared with bitches with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH). The present study revealed that in bitches with fluid in the uterus, the analysis of PG-metabolite in combination with percentage band neutrophils can distinguish between pyometra and CEH. The levels of PG-metabolite are predictive of the severity of pyometra since they were correlated to criteria of a systemic inflammatory response and also to the length of hospitalisation. In summary, this thesis provides data on breed- and age-related differences in the incidence of pyometra, which will be helpful in future studies of the disease and breeding programmes. In addition, clarification of key bacteriological and pathophysiological characteristics of the development of pyometra can improve diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and increase survival rates.
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    • "Edney & Smith, 1986 UK Labrador Retriever, Cairn Terrier, Collie, Basset Hound, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Cocker Spaniel, Dachshund and Beagle. Krook et al. (1960) "
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    ABSTRACT: Nowadays the obesity at the dogs represents one of the most important nutritional problems, and it becamed a frequent illness.This can affect seriously the pets health (causeing a shorter life, cardiac disorders, osteoarticular problems), though some owners think that a faty pet is a sign of well-being.
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