Multigene DNA prime-boost vaccines for SHIV89.6P.
ABSTRACT We assessed four prime-boost vaccine regimens with a Gene Gun component for SHIV89.6P in Macaca nemestrina. A dosing experiment using beta-galactosidase plasmid showed that 30 or 45 shots per dose elicited higher titer antibody than smaller doses. For SHIV89.6P, we administered a six-plasmid vaccine capable of producing non-infectious virions in vivo in combination with either vaccinia recombinants or inactivated virus. DNA prime/vaccinia boost, or the reverse, elicited strong immune responses. The SHIV89.6P challenge virus was grown in M. nemestrina peripheral blood mononuclear cells and titered in vivo intrarectally. As has been observed for SHIV89.6P in M. mulatta, the infected M. nemestrina experienced rapid and severe loss of circulating CD4+ T cells. Vaccinated macaques were challenged three weeks after the last boost. DNA prime/vaccina boost or vaccina prime/DNA boost protected 11/12 animals from acute CD4+ T cell depletion and disease, while other regimens were not effective.
- SourceAvailable from: Nancy Haigwood[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A major goal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine efforts is the design of Envelope (Env)-based immunogens effective at eliciting heterologous or broad neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). We hypothesized that programming the B-cell response could be achieved by sequentially exposing the host to a collection of env variants representing the viral quasispecies members isolated from an individual that developed broad NAbs over time. This ordered vaccine approach (sequential) was compared to exposure to a cocktail of env clones (mixture) and to a single env variant (clonal). The three strategies induced comparable levels of the autologous and heterologous neutralization of tier 1 pseudoviruses. Sequential and mixture exposure to quasispecies led to epitope targeting similar to that observed in the simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected animal from which the env variants were cloned, while clonal and sequential exposure led to greater antibody maturation than the mixture. Therefore, the sequential vaccine approach best replicated the features of the NAb response observed in that animal. This study is the first to explore the use of a collection of HIV-1 env quasispecies variants as immunogens and to present evidence that it is possible to educate the B-cell response by sequential exposure to native HIV-1 quasispecies env variants derived from an individual with a broadened NAb response.Journal of Virology 03/2011; 85(11):5262-74. · 5.08 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The design of an efficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunogen able to generate broad neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) remains an elusive goal. As more data emerge, it is becoming apparent that one important aspect of such an immunogen will be the proper representation of the envelope protein (Env) as it exists on native virions. Important questions that are yet to be fully addressed include what factors dictate Env processing, how different Env forms are represented on the virion, and ultimately how these issues influence the development and efficacy of NAbs. Recent data have begun to illuminate the extent to which changes in gp41 can impact the overall structure and neutralizing sensitivity of Env. Here, we present evidence to suggest that minor mutations in gp120 can significantly impact Env processing. We analyzed the gp120 sequences of 20 env variants that evolved in multiple macaques over 8 months of infection with simian/human immunodeficiency virus 89.6P. Variant gp120 sequences were subcloned into gp160 expression plasmids with identical cleavage motifs and gp41 sequences. Cells cotransfected with these plasmids and delta env genomes were able to produce competent virus. The resulting pseudoviruses incorporated high levels of Env onto virions that exhibited a range of degrees of virion-associated Env cleavage (15 to 40%). Higher levels of cleavage correlated with increased infectivity and increased resistance to macaque plasma, HIV immunoglobulin, soluble CD4, and human monoclonal antibodies 4E10, 2F5, and b12. Based on these data, we discuss a model whereby changes in gp120 of 89.6P impact Env processing and thereby mediate escape from a range of neutralizing agents.Journal of Virology 01/2008; 81(23):13037-49. · 5.08 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: DNA vaccines are, in principle, the simplest yet most versatile methods of inducing protective humoral and cellular immune responses. Research involving this type of vaccine against veterinary diseases began in the early 1990s and has since seen the evaluation of more than 30 important viral pathogens, including the economically important foot-and-mouth disease. With the demonstration that DNA vaccines protect against foot-and-mouth disease in sheep and pigs, and the advantages these DNA vaccines have over the conventional formulations, this approach may provide a better solution to the control of this disease. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of DNA vaccination strategies for foot-and-mouth disease reported in the literature, in which we highlight the studies that have reported protection in the key target species.Expert Review of Vaccines 04/2012; 11(4):481-93. · 4.22 Impact Factor