Social exclusion and the deconstructed state: time perception, meaninglessness, lethargy, lack of emotion, and self-awareness.

Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, California 92182-4611, USA.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Impact Factor: 5.08). 10/2003; 85(3):409-23. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.3.409
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The authors hypothesize that socially excluded individuals enter a defensive state of cognitive deconstruction that avoids meaningful thought, emotion, and self-awareness, and is characterized by lethargy and altered time flow. Social rejection led to an overestimation of time intervals, a focus on the present rather than the future, and a failure to delay gratification (Experiment 1). Rejected participants were more likely to agree that "Life is meaningless" (Experiment 2). Excluded participants wrote fewer words and displayed slower reaction times (Experiments 3 and 4). They chose fewer emotion words in an implicit emotion task (Experiment 5), replicating the lack of emotion on explicit measures (Experiments 1-3 and 6). Excluded participants also tried to escape from self-awareness by facing away from a mirror (Experiment 6).

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dehumanizing attitudes and behaviors frequently occur in organizational settings and are often viewed as an acceptable, and even necessary, strategy for pursuing personal and organizational goals. Here I examine a number of commonly held beliefs about dehumanization and argue that there is relatively little support for them in light of the evidence emerging from social psychological and neuroscientific research. Contrary to the commonly held belief that everyday forms of dehumanization are innocent and inconsequential, the evidence shows profoundly negative consequences for both victims and perpetrators. As well, the belief that suppressing empathy automatically leads to improved problem solving is not supported by the evidence. The more general belief that empathy interferes with problem solving receives partial support, but only in the case of mechanistic problem solving. Overall, I question the usefulness of dehumanization in organizational settings and argue that it can be replaced by superior strategies that are ethically more acceptable and do not entail the severely negative consequences associated with dehumanization.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:748. · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This contribution describes the current state-of-the-art of the scientific literature regarding the self-soothing effects of crying. Starting from the general hypothesis that crying is a self-soothing behavior, we consider different mechanisms through which these effects may appear. In the first section, we briefly explain the main functions of human crying. Then we define self-soothing in terms of homeostatic processes of mood regulation and stress reduction and we underline the importance of distinguishing self-soothing effects of crying from social-soothing that it may elicit. We then provide a comprehensive review of the putative mood-enhancing and -relieving effects of crying and their variations stemming from characteristics of crying person, antecedents, manifestations, and social consequences of crying. We also discuss the possible methodological explanations for the seemingly discrepant findings regarding mood improvement and relief that may follow crying. We then provide theoretical and empirical support for our general hypothesis that crying is a self-soothing behavior by presenting and evaluating the possible physiological, cognitive, and behavioral mechanisms that may play a mediating role in the relationship between crying and homeostatic regulation that includes mood improvement and relief. Starting from the idea that social-soothing and self-soothing mechanisms share the same physiological systems, we propose that biological processes act in parallel with learning and reappraisal processes that accompany crying, which results in homeostatic regulation. Given the parallels between self-soothing behaviors in humans and animals, we also propose that crying might self-soothe through a mechanism that shares key properties with rhythmical, stereotypic behaviors. We conclude that, in addition to the importance of socially mediated mechanisms for the mood-enhancing effects of crying, there is converging evidence for the direct, self-soothing effects of crying.
    Frontiers in Psychology 05/2014; 5(502). · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Very few contemporary approaches on addiction specifically aim to address the question of why people who are well-aware of harmful consequences continue to perform addictive behaviours. The aim of this article is to introduce a model of addiction which addresses this question. This model integrates the existing theoretical approaches on addiction in one framework by arguing that the majority of contemporary accounts of addiction are not mutually exclusive in the sense that the occurrence or prominence of one process does not preclude the occurrence of another. Moreover, the suggestion is that the majority of these accounts are in effect supportive of and cooperate with each other in order to shape a background on which addiction flourishes. This approach views addiction as a matter of synergy where many social, environmental, historic, personal, neurological and chemical mechanisms simultaneously work together in order to form behaviours extremely resistant to change. The conclusions of the present analysis point out the necessity of: (1) approaching addiction in a more complex manner by providing a detailed analysis of and grouping the multiple sources of addiction into one integrative model, (2) exploring the synergetic effect of diverse accounts in the development and perpetuation of addiction and (3) emphasizing the significance of individual perception of addiction and individually tailored approaches to treating it. The limitations of the present analysis are also outlined.
    Addiction Research and Theory 12/2012; 21(1). · 1.03 Impact Factor


Available from