Vascular anastomoses in dichorionic diamniotic-fused placentas.
ABSTRACT A case of fetal twin-to-twin cytomegalovirus infection through a dichorionic diamniotic (DiDi)-fused placenta prompted our search for possible vascular anastomoses in this type of placenta. This case and three additional DiDi-fused placentas were studied with gross (macro) sections and a three-dimensional (3D) stereomicroscopic technique. Two twins were dizygotic (they differed in gender and blood groups) and the other two were probably monozygotic. Macrosections and 3D-image analysis demonstrated side-to-side connections between small subchorionic vessels. These findings demonstrate that vascular anastomoses are present in DiDi-fused placentas.
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ABSTRACT: Infant leukemia (IL) is a rare sporadic cancer with a grim prognosis. While most cases are accompanied by MLL-rearrangements and harbor very few somatic mutations; less is known about the genetics of the cases without MLL translocations. We performed the largest exome sequencing study to date on matched non-cancer DNA from pairs of mothers and IL patients to characterize congenital variation that may contribute to early leukemogenesis. Using the COSMIC database to define acute leukemia-associated candidate genes, we find a significant enrichment of rare, potentially functional congenital variation in IL patients compared to randomly selected genes within the same patients and unaffected pediatric controls. IL AML patients had more overall variation than IL ALL patients, but less of that variation was inherited from mothers. Of our candidate genes, we found that MLL3 was a compound heterozygote in every infant who developed AML and 50% of infants who developed ALL. These data suggest a model by which known genetic mechanisms for leukemogenesis could be disrupted without an abundance of somatic mutation or chromosomal rearrangements. This model would be consistent with existing models for the establishment of leukemia clones in utero and the high rate of IL concordance in monozygotic twins.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 4 December 2013. doi:10.1038/leu.2013.367.Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 12/2013; · 10.16 Impact Factor
Chapter: Human EmbryogenesisEmbryogenesis, 04/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0466-7
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ABSTRACT: Large format sections (LS) first have been introduced in breast pathology more than a century ago. Since then, they constituted for longtime a research tool to better understand breast microanatomy and the relationship between radiological images and pathological features. Similarly LS have been used to study neoplastic, inflammatory, and degenerative diseases affecting various organs, as brain, lung, gastrointentinal tract, bone, urinary tract, prostate, and placenta. Currently LS are mostly applied to diagnostic routine to better stage tumours such as prostate and breast carcinomas or to correlate radiologic imaging to gross specimens. The purpose of the present paper is to review the historical background and the basis of the applications of LS in surgical pathology, with special emphasis on breast tumours.International journal of breast cancer. 01/2012; 2012:785947.