Phospholipid-Based Signaling in Plants

Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, Department of Plant Physiology, University of Amsterdam, NL-1098 SM Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Annual review of plant biology (Impact Factor: 23.3). 02/2003; 54(1):265-306. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.134748
Source: PubMed


Phospholipids are emerging as novel second messengers in plant cells. They are rapidly formed in response to a variety of stimuli via the activation of lipid kinases or phospholipases. These lipid signals can activate enzymes or recruit proteins to membranes via distinct lipid-binding domains, where the local increase in concentration promotes interactions and downstream signaling. Here, the latest developments in phospholipid-based signaling are discussed, including the lipid kinases and phospholipases that are activated, the signals they produce, the domains that bind them, the downstream targets that contain them and the processes they control.

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Available from: Harold J G Meijer,
    • "Lipid signalling has emerged as one of the major signalling networks as adaptive mechanism in response to various environmental cues and adverse growth conditions (Singh et al., 2015). In this sense, membranes are the sites where many signals are perceived by the cell and it is well establish that lipids or lipidderived molecules are a group of plant messengers that have been described to be involved in stress responses (Meijer and Munnik, 2003; Sun et al., 2013; Ruelland et al., 2015). Among the enzymes that have a role in mediating membrane lipid remodeling it is important to mention the phospholipases that catalyze the initial step of phospholipid breakdown and generate multiple lipid derived second messengers (Singh et al., 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vicia sativa, is a leguminous species able to germinate, grow in the presence of phenol and remove this contaminant. However, there are not reports concerning the signals triggered by the pollutant and how plants perceive and transduce this signal in order to adapt to adverse conditions. Phosphatidic acid (PA) has been proposed as a key messenger in plants and it can be generated via phospholipase D (PLD) or via phospholipase C (PLC) coupled to diacylglycerol kinase (DGK). Thus, changes in this minor phospholipid and in enzymes involved in its catabolism were analyzed after treatment with phenol (25 and 100mgL-1). The results obtained, seem to suggest that the higher concentration could be sensed as a stressful signal, since a rapid (1.5h) and transient increase in PA, via PLD and a second wave of increase possibly via PLC/DGK was observed after 96h of exposure with 100mgL-1 of phenol. Besides, a markedly increase in enzymes related with PA metabolism, mainly DGK, phosphatidylinositol kinase (PIK) and PA kinase (PAK), was detected after long term treatment. Thus, this study highlighted the key role of minor phospholipids, especially PA, in the transduction pathway induced by phenol.
    Environmental and Experimental Botany 09/2015; 122. DOI:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2015.09.005 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "This is of particular interest, as these major structural phospholipids are substrates for phospholipases. Phospholipases and phospholipid-derived molecules are crucial elements in stress response mediation, particularly via the activation of the phospholipase A (PLA), phospholipase D (PLD), or phospholipase C (PLC) and diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) pathways (Munnik and Testerink, 2009; Meijer and Munnik, 2003). In animals, in vitro exposure of epithelial cells to O 3 resulted in dose-dependent increases in phospholipase A2, phospholipase C and phospholipase D activity (Salgo et al., 1994; Kafoury et al.,1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: All along their life, plants and trees are exposed to various stresses, and particularly to abiotic ones. Ozone (O3) is one of the most important air pollutants, whose ground levels keep increasing as a result of climate change. High O3 concentrations deeply affect plants and cells, and impact worldwide crop and forest production. In plant leaves, O3 directly interferes with surface tissues or reaches mesophyll cells through stomata. In this case, O3 is almost immediately degraded into reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the apoplastic space of plant cells. For plants to acclimate to O3, the O3 stress signal has to be perceived at the cellular level and relayed to the nucleus to lead to cell reprogramming. The aim of this review is to focus on different O3-sensing localizations, i.e., epicuticular waxes, the cell wall and the plasma membrane, and to detail the different early signaling components related to these sites – in particular lipids, membrane proteins (G proteins, NADPH oxidases and ion channels) and MAP kinases. Finally, some interesting putative membrane-related O3 signaling components are presented as clues to be validated in future investigations.
    Environmental and Experimental Botany 06/2015; 114. DOI:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2014.11.012 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Moreover, CaM3 is supposed to be involved in the activation of HSFs shown by electrophoretic mobility-shift assays, real-time quantitative reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction, and Western-blot analyses (Zhang et al., 2009). Membrane perturbations triggered by phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPK), leading to the generation of lipid signals including phosphatidic acid (PA) and inositol-bis or trisphosphate (IP 2 , IP 3 ) also contribute to plasma membrane signals (Berridge and Irvine, 1984; Meijer and Munnik, 2003; Zhang et al., 2009a,b). Zheng et al. (2012) have shown a direct correlation between reduced phospholipase C9 activity and reduced IP3 amounts, leading to down-regulation of HSPs and reduced thermotolerance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Being sessile organisms, plants are constantly exposed to various kinds of environmental stimuli. To survive under unfavorable environmental conditions they have evolved strategies to allow a balance between growth, reproduction and survival. In this review article, we first focus on two major abiotic stress factors, drought and heat, and briefly summarize the current knowledge on signal transduction pathways involved in plant responses to these stresses. In nature it is unlikely that plants are exposed to abiotic or biotic stresses in isolation. Hence, multiple stress situations are more likely to occur including heat, drought, salinity and pathogen attack. Since in many cases stress responses are antagonistic, predictions of molecular responses to multiple stresses based on single stress data is difficult or even impossible. Only recently, researchers started to study multiple-stress interactions and discovered for instance that plant responses to a combination of heat and drought differ from those to both single stresses. Moreover, abiotic stress applications are likely to influence plant-pathogen interactions and vice versa. Here, we discuss various aspects of multiple stress applications published within the last few years and pronounce the importance to study biotic and abiotic stress combinations in order to predict plant responses to future climate changes.
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