A novel domain in the protein kinase SOS2 mediates interaction with the protein phosphatase 2C ABI2.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 10/2003; 100(20):11771-6. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2034853100
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT SOS2 (salt overly sensitive 2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase required for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we identified the protein phosphatase 2C ABI2 (abscisic acid-insensitive 2) as a SOS2-interacting protein. Deletion analysis led to the discovery of a novel protein domain of 37 amino acid residues, designated as the protein phosphatase interaction (PPI) motif, of SOS2 that is necessary and sufficient for interaction with ABI2. The PPI motif is conserved in protein kinases of the SOS2 family (i.e., protein kinase S, PKS) and in the DNA damage repair and replication block checkpoint kinase, Chk1, from various organisms including humans. Mutations in the conserved amino acid residues in the PPI motif abolish the interaction of SOS2 with ABI2. We also identified a protein kinase interaction domain in ABI2 and examined the interaction specificity between PKS and the ABI phosphatases. We found that some PKSs interact strongly with ABI2 whereas others interact preferentially with ABI1. The interaction between SOS2 and ABI2 was disrupted by the abi2-1 mutation, which causes increased tolerance to salt shock and abscisic acid insensitivity in plants. Our results establish the PPI motif and the protein kinase interaction domain as novel protein interaction domains that mediate the binding between the SOS2 family of protein kinases and the ABI1/2 family of protein phosphatases.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Calcium ion is involved in diverse physiological and developmental pathways. One of the important roles of calcium is a signaling messenger, which regulates signal transduction in plants. CBL (calcineurin B-like protein) is one of the calcium sensors that specifically interact with a family of serine–threonine protein kinases designated as CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). The coordination of these two gene families defines complexity of the signaling networks in several stimulus-response-coupling during various environmental stresses. In Arabidopsis, both of these gene families have been extensively studied. To understand in-depth mechanistic interplay of CBL–CIPK mediated signaling pathways, expression analysis of entire set of CBL and CIPK genes in rice genome under three abiotic stresses (salt, cold and drought) and different developmental stages (3-vegetative stages and 11-reproductive stages) were done using microarray expression data. Interestingly, expression analysis showed that rice CBLs and CIPKs are not only involved in the abiotic stress but their significant role is also speculated in the developmental processes. Chromosomal localization of rice CBL and CIPK genes reveals that only OsCBL7 and OsCBL8 shows tandem duplication among CBLs whereas CIPKs were evolved by many tandem as well as segmental duplications. Duplicated OsCIPK genes showed variable expression pattern indicating the role of gene duplication in the extension and functional diversification of CIPK gene family in rice. Arabidopsis SOS3/CBL4 related genes in rice (OsCBL4, OsCBL5, OsCBL7 and OsCBL8) were employed for interaction studies with rice and Arabidopsis CIPKs. OsCBLs and OsCIPKs are not only found structurally similar but likely to be functionally equivalent to Arabidopsis CBLs and CIPKs genes since SOS3/CBL4 related OsCBLs interact with more or less similarly to rice and Arabidopsis CIPKs and exhibited an interaction pattern comparable with Arabidopsis SOS3/CBL4.
    Cell Calcium 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ceca.2014.05.003 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway regulates intracellular sodium ion (Na(+)) homeostasis and salt tolerance in plants. Until recently, little was known about the mechanisms that inhibit the SOS pathway when plants are grown in the absence of salt stress. In this study, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana 14-3-3 proteins λ and κ interact with SOS2 and repress its kinase activity. Growth in the presence of salt decreases the interaction between SOS2 and the 14-3-3 proteins, leading to kinase activation in planta. 14-3-3 λ interacts with the SOS2 junction domain, which is important for its kinase activity. A phosphorylation site (Ser-294) is identified within this domain by mass spectrometry. Mutation of Ser-294 to Ala or Asp does not affect SOS2 kinase activity in the absence of the 14-3-3 proteins. However, in the presence of 14-3-3 proteins, the inhibition of SOS2 activity is decreased by the Ser-to-Ala mutation and enhanced by the Ser-to-Asp exchange. These results identify 14-3-3 λ and κ as important regulators of salt tolerance. The inhibition of SOS2 mediated by the binding of 14-3-3 proteins represents a novel mechanism that confers basal repression of the SOS pathway in the absence of salt stress.
    The Plant Cell 03/2014; 26(3). DOI:10.1105/tpc.113.117069 · 9.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Calcium is a crucial messenger in many growth and developmental processes in plants. The central mechanism governing how plant cells perceive and respond to environmental stimuli is calcium signal transduction, a process through which cellular calcium signals are recognized, decoded, and transmitted to elicit downstream responses. In the initial decoding of calcium signals, Ca2+ sensor proteins that bind Ca2+ and activate downstream signaling components are implicated, thereby regulating specific physiological and biochemical processes. After calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) sense these Ca2+ signatures, these proteins interact selectively with CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs), thereby forming CBL/CIPK complexes, which are involved in decoding calcium signals. Therefore, specificity, diversity, and complexity are the main characteristics of the CBL-CIPK signaling system. However, additional CBLs, CIPKs, and CBL/CIPK complexes remain to be identified in plants, and the specific functions of their abiotic and biotic stress signaling will need to be further dissected. Therefore, a much-needed synthesis of recent findings is important to further the study of CBL-CIPK signaling systems. Here, we review the structure of CBLs and CIPKs, discuss the current knowledge of CBL–CIPK pathways that decode calcium signals in Arabidopsis, and link plant responses to a variety of environmental stresses with specific CBL/CIPK complexes. This will provide a foundation for future research on genetically engineered resistant plants with enhanced tolerance to various environmental stresses.
    Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 12/2013; 31(6). DOI:10.1007/s11105-013-0631-y · 2.37 Impact Factor


1 Download
Available from