To further explore the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of certain tropanes, and to gain insights into the structural features required for high activity and selectivity at norepinephrine transporters (NET), we have introduced both five- and six-membered heteroaromatic moieties such as substituted pyridyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidyl, thiazolyl, and mono- or disubstituted thienyl groups into conformationally constrained, tricyclic tropane analogues. A number of (Z)-9-(heteroarylmethylene)-7-azatricyclo[22.214.171.124(3,7)]decanes were synthesized, and their abilities to block dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine reuptake by their respective transporters were evaluated. It was found that the five- or six-membered N-containing aromatics are too basic to display high NET activity, while some of the thiophene analogues were identified as potent and selective NET inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The norepinephrine transporter (NET) is located in the plasma membrane of noradrenergic neurons, where it functions to take up synaptically released norepinephrine (NE). The NET thus serves as the primary mechanism for the inactivation of noradrenergic signaling. Some potent and selective or mixed NET inhibitors (e.g., reboxetine and atomoxetine) have been successfully developed to treat a variety of mental disorders such as depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, to date, only a very limited number of NET-selective inhibitors are available. New potent and selective NET inhibitors may find application in the treatment of mental disorders or in PET imaging, and may enhance our basic understanding of these illnesses. In the present review, both previously reported and newly designed NET inhibitors, as well as their therapeutic and imaging potential, will be discussed. Two types of molecules, the conformationally constrained tropanes and the piperidine-based nocaine/modafinil hybrid ligands, represent new leads and provide good opportunities for discovering novel potent and selective NET inhibitors that are useful as therapies and imaging agents for the NET.
Drugs of the Future 01/2005; 29(12):1235-1244. · 0.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To further explore the structure-activity relationships of conformationally constrained tropanes, a number of new biaryl and arylacetylene analogs were designed and synthesized. Some of these compounds such as 3a-b, 3d, 3f-h, 5b, and 7g were found to be highly potent and selective or mixed norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitors with Ki values of 0.8-9.4 nM. Moreover, all of these compounds display weak to extremely weak muscarinic receptor binding affinity, indicating that as potential antidepressants, they may overcome certain side effects that are of concern with other antidepressants, which are thought to be mediated by their anticholinergic properties.
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