PET scanning in lung cancer: current status and future directions.
ABSTRACT Positron emission tomography (PET) represents a dramatic advance in the imaging of lung cancer. It is valuable for the diagnosis, staging, prognosis, and restaging of disease, and is most useful in patients considered for potentially curative therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this work the current status and potential future applications of PET scanning in lung cancer are discussed. The relevant literature is also discussed, with an emphasis on studies with clinical applicability. Most of these studies involved the use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Numerous studies of the use of PET to assess undiagnosed pulmonary nodules have reported significant improvements in accurate diagnosis or exclusion of malignancy compared to conventional structural imaging alone. All of these studies, including metaanalysis, have shown that PET is more accurate than CT-based structural imaging in staging the mediastinum in surgical candidates. PET may have value in radiotherapy planning, and PET-based staging more accurately predicts survival in radiotherapy-treated patients than conventional staging. The rate of unsuspected distant metastasis detection in stage III disease exceeds 20%. PET also facilitates an accurate assessment of response in patients treated with radical chemoradiation or neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgery. PET has rapidly become an indispensable part of the evaluation of patients with potentially curable lung cancer; however, more work is required to define its role.
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ABSTRACT: This review describes the advantages and disadvantages of radiography, ultrasonography, and nuclear medicine in the 2 most frequent thyroid pathologies of the dog: acquired primary hypothyroidism and thyroid neoplasia. Ultrasonography and scintigraphy remain the 2 most indicated imaging modalities for these thyroid abnormalities. However, as in human medicine, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also have potential indications. This is especially the case in the evaluation of the extent, local invasiveness, and local or distant metastases of thyroid neoplasia. Based on experience with different imaging modalities in people, we suggest future directions in the imaging of the canine thyroid gland.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2007; 21(4):673-84. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This manuscript presents an investigation and application of the medical radiographic technique of Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography with an emphasis on its application to the measurement of tissue perfusion using the techniques of CT Perfusion. CT Perfusion was used in association with Fluoro- Deoxy Glucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG PET) to investigate altered blood flow due to the angiogenic effects of tumour in the clinical setting of medical imaging for cancer diagnosis and staging. CT perfusion, CT enhancement and Doppler ultrasound studies were compared in a series of patient studies performed for the assessment of metastatic liver disease. There was good correlation between all techniques for the arterial phase but not between Doppler measurements of the portal phase and any CT measurement. A new method was developed for quantifying CT perfusion and enhancement values, the Standardised Perfusion Value (SPV) and the Standardised Enhancement Value (SEV). The SPV was shown to correlate with FDG uptake in a series of 16 patient studies of lung nodules, an unexpected and potentially important finding that if confirmed in a larger study may provide an additional diagnostic role for CT in the assessment of lung nodules. Investigation of a commercially available package for the determination of CT Perfusion, CT Perfusion GE Medical Systems, was undertaken in a small series of brain studies for assessment of acute stroke. This data set showed the technique to positively identify patients with non-hemorrhagic stroke in the presence of a normal conventional CT, to select those cases where thrombolysis is appropriate, and to provide an indication for prognosis. An investigation of the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of FDG PET in solitary pulmonary nodules using Australian data was carried out. FDG PET was found to be accurate, cost saving and cost effective for the characterisation of indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodules in Australia. This work was expanded to include the impact of quantitative contrast enhancement CT (QECT) on the cost-effectiveness of FDG PET. The addition of QECT is a cost effective approach, however whether QECT is used alone or in combination with FDG PET will depend on local availability of PET, the cost of PET with respect to surgery and the prior probability of malignancy. A published review of CT perfusion, clinical applications and techniques, is included in the body of the work. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and FDG PET were used to investigate blood flow, expressed as SPV, and metabolic relationships in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) of varying size and stage. A significant correlation between SPV and FDG uptake was only found for tumours smaller than 4.5 cm2. Blood flow-metabolic relationships are not consistent in NSCLC but depend on tumour size and stage. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT as an adjunct to an FDG study undertaken using integrated PET-CT offers an efficient way to augment the assessment of tumour biology with possible future application as part of clinical care. In summary the work has developed a method for standardizing the results of dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and investigated its potential when applied with FDG PET to improve the diagnosis and staging of cancers.
Article: 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging in oncology.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Accurate diagnosis and staging are essential for the optimal management of cancer patients. Positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has emerged as a powerful imaging tool for the detection of various cancers. The combined acquisition of PET and CT has synergistic advantages over PET or CT alone and minimizes their individual limitations. It is a valuable tool for staging and restaging of some tumors and has an important role in the detection of recurrence in asymptomatic patients with rising tumor marker levels and patients with negative or equivocal findings on conventional imaging techniques. It also allows for monitoring response to therapy and permitting timely modification of therapeutic regimens. In about 27% of the patients, the course of management is changed. This review provides guidance for oncologists/radiotherapists and clinical and surgical specialists on the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in oncology.Annals of Saudi medicine 01/2011; 31(1):3-13. · 1.10 Impact Factor