PET scanning in lung cancer: current status and future directions.
ABSTRACT Positron emission tomography (PET) represents a dramatic advance in the imaging of lung cancer. It is valuable for the diagnosis, staging, prognosis, and restaging of disease, and is most useful in patients considered for potentially curative therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this work the current status and potential future applications of PET scanning in lung cancer are discussed. The relevant literature is also discussed, with an emphasis on studies with clinical applicability. Most of these studies involved the use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Numerous studies of the use of PET to assess undiagnosed pulmonary nodules have reported significant improvements in accurate diagnosis or exclusion of malignancy compared to conventional structural imaging alone. All of these studies, including metaanalysis, have shown that PET is more accurate than CT-based structural imaging in staging the mediastinum in surgical candidates. PET may have value in radiotherapy planning, and PET-based staging more accurately predicts survival in radiotherapy-treated patients than conventional staging. The rate of unsuspected distant metastasis detection in stage III disease exceeds 20%. PET also facilitates an accurate assessment of response in patients treated with radical chemoradiation or neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgery. PET has rapidly become an indispensable part of the evaluation of patients with potentially curable lung cancer; however, more work is required to define its role.
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ABSTRACT: PET is a crucial technique in molecular imaging, allowing in vivo assessment and localization of pathological processes, thanks to its ability to detect very small amounts of radioactive molecules. This is of particular interest in oncology where abnormal metabolism or synthesis in tumor cells but also various tumor characteristics can be studied using this nuclear medicine technique. FDG is currently the most widely used tracer, nowadays essential in the management of various malignancies, with large applications in diagnosis, initial assessment, therapy monitoring, and recurrence detection. The combination of anatomical information provided by PET/CT further increased its interest. Beyond its spread use in daily practice, future applications of PET will involve other tracers than FDG and develop research applications in humans as well as in small animals.Critical reviews in oncology/hematology 01/2009; 72(3):239-54. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article covers the risk factors, diagnostic tools, staging methods/modalities and treatment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Also presented is the new 7th edition American Joint Cancer Committee (AJCC) TNM classification for staging of NSCLC and a recommended treatment algorithm.Indian Journal of Surgery 12/2009; 71(6):310-6. · 0.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Accurate inguinal and pelvic nodal staging in anal cancer is important for the prognosis and planning of radiation fields. There is evidence for the role of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the staging and management of cancer, with early reports of an increasing role in outcome prognostication in a number of tumours. We aimed to determine the effect of FDG-PET on the nodal staging, radiotherapy planning and prognostication of patients with primary anal cancer. Sixty-one consecutive patients with anal cancer who were referred to a tertiary centre between August 1997 and November 2005 were staged with conventional imaging (CIm) (including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and chest X-ray) and by FDG-PET. The stage determined by CIm and the proposed management plan were prospectively recorded and changes in stage and management as a result of FDG-PET assessed. Patients were treated with a uniform radiotherapy technique and dose. The accuracy of changes and prognostication of FDG-PET were validated by subsequent clinical follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate survival for the whole cohort and by FDG-PET and CIm stage. The tumour-stage group was changed in 23% (14 out of 61) as a result of FDG-PET (15% up-staged, 8% down-staged). Fourteen percent of T1 patients (3 out of 22), 42% of T2 patients (10 out of 24) and 40% of T3-4 patients (6 out of 15) assessed using CIm, had a change in their nodal or metastatic stage following FDG-PET. Sensitivity for nodal regional disease by FDG-PET and CIm was 89% and 62%, respectively. The staging FDG-PET scan altered management intent in 3% (2 out of 61) and radiotherapy fields in 13% (8 out of 61). The estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for the cohort were 77.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 55.3-90.4%) and 72.2% (95% CI: 51.5-86.4%), respectively. The estimated 5-year PFS for FDG-PET and CIm staged N2-3 disease was 70% (95% CI: 42.8-87.9%) and 55.3% (95% CI: 23.3-83.4%), respectively. FDG-PET shows increased sensitivity over CIm for staging nodal disease in anal cancer and changes treatment intent or radiotherapy prescription in a significant proportion of patients.British Journal of Cancer 04/2009; 100(5):693-700. · 5.08 Impact Factor