PET scanning in lung cancer: Current status and future directions
ABSTRACT Positron emission tomography (PET) represents a dramatic advance in the imaging of lung cancer. It is valuable for the diagnosis, staging, prognosis, and restaging of disease, and is most useful in patients considered for potentially curative therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this work the current status and potential future applications of PET scanning in lung cancer are discussed. The relevant literature is also discussed, with an emphasis on studies with clinical applicability. Most of these studies involved the use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Numerous studies of the use of PET to assess undiagnosed pulmonary nodules have reported significant improvements in accurate diagnosis or exclusion of malignancy compared to conventional structural imaging alone. All of these studies, including metaanalysis, have shown that PET is more accurate than CT-based structural imaging in staging the mediastinum in surgical candidates. PET may have value in radiotherapy planning, and PET-based staging more accurately predicts survival in radiotherapy-treated patients than conventional staging. The rate of unsuspected distant metastasis detection in stage III disease exceeds 20%. PET also facilitates an accurate assessment of response in patients treated with radical chemoradiation or neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgery. PET has rapidly become an indispensable part of the evaluation of patients with potentially curable lung cancer; however, more work is required to define its role.
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ABSTRACT: Accurate inguinal and pelvic nodal staging in anal cancer is important for the prognosis and planning of radiation fields. There is evidence for the role of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the staging and management of cancer, with early reports of an increasing role in outcome prognostication in a number of tumours. We aimed to determine the effect of FDG-PET on the nodal staging, radiotherapy planning and prognostication of patients with primary anal cancer. Sixty-one consecutive patients with anal cancer who were referred to a tertiary centre between August 1997 and November 2005 were staged with conventional imaging (CIm) (including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and chest X-ray) and by FDG-PET. The stage determined by CIm and the proposed management plan were prospectively recorded and changes in stage and management as a result of FDG-PET assessed. Patients were treated with a uniform radiotherapy technique and dose. The accuracy of changes and prognostication of FDG-PET were validated by subsequent clinical follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate survival for the whole cohort and by FDG-PET and CIm stage. The tumour-stage group was changed in 23% (14 out of 61) as a result of FDG-PET (15% up-staged, 8% down-staged). Fourteen percent of T1 patients (3 out of 22), 42% of T2 patients (10 out of 24) and 40% of T3-4 patients (6 out of 15) assessed using CIm, had a change in their nodal or metastatic stage following FDG-PET. Sensitivity for nodal regional disease by FDG-PET and CIm was 89% and 62%, respectively. The staging FDG-PET scan altered management intent in 3% (2 out of 61) and radiotherapy fields in 13% (8 out of 61). The estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for the cohort were 77.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 55.3-90.4%) and 72.2% (95% CI: 51.5-86.4%), respectively. The estimated 5-year PFS for FDG-PET and CIm staged N2-3 disease was 70% (95% CI: 42.8-87.9%) and 55.3% (95% CI: 23.3-83.4%), respectively. FDG-PET shows increased sensitivity over CIm for staging nodal disease in anal cancer and changes treatment intent or radiotherapy prescription in a significant proportion of patients.British Journal of Cancer 04/2009; 100(5):693-700. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604897 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This manuscript presents an investigation and application of the medical radiographic technique of Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography with an emphasis on its application to the measurement of tissue perfusion using the techniques of CT Perfusion. CT Perfusion was used in association with Fluoro- Deoxy Glucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG PET) to investigate altered blood flow due to the angiogenic effects of tumour in the clinical setting of medical imaging for cancer diagnosis and staging. CT perfusion, CT enhancement and Doppler ultrasound studies were compared in a series of patient studies performed for the assessment of metastatic liver disease. There was good correlation between all techniques for the arterial phase but not between Doppler measurements of the portal phase and any CT measurement. A new method was developed for quantifying CT perfusion and enhancement values, the Standardised Perfusion Value (SPV) and the Standardised Enhancement Value (SEV). The SPV was shown to correlate with FDG uptake in a series of 16 patient studies of lung nodules, an unexpected and potentially important finding that if confirmed in a larger study may provide an additional diagnostic role for CT in the assessment of lung nodules. Investigation of a commercially available package for the determination of CT Perfusion, CT Perfusion GE Medical Systems, was undertaken in a small series of brain studies for assessment of acute stroke. This data set showed the technique to positively identify patients with non-hemorrhagic stroke in the presence of a normal conventional CT, to select those cases where thrombolysis is appropriate, and to provide an indication for prognosis. An investigation of the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of FDG PET in solitary pulmonary nodules using Australian data was carried out. FDG PET was found to be accurate, cost saving and cost effective for the characterisation of indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodules in Australia. This work was expanded to include the impact of quantitative contrast enhancement CT (QECT) on the cost-effectiveness of FDG PET. The addition of QECT is a cost effective approach, however whether QECT is used alone or in combination with FDG PET will depend on local availability of PET, the cost of PET with respect to surgery and the prior probability of malignancy. A published review of CT perfusion, clinical applications and techniques, is included in the body of the work. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and FDG PET were used to investigate blood flow, expressed as SPV, and metabolic relationships in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) of varying size and stage. A significant correlation between SPV and FDG uptake was only found for tumours smaller than 4.5 cm2. Blood flow-metabolic relationships are not consistent in NSCLC but depend on tumour size and stage. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT as an adjunct to an FDG study undertaken using integrated PET-CT offers an efficient way to augment the assessment of tumour biology with possible future application as part of clinical care. In summary the work has developed a method for standardizing the results of dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and investigated its potential when applied with FDG PET to improve the diagnosis and staging of cancers.
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ABSTRACT: Combined modality treatment in advanced NSCLC has produced some gain in treatment outcome. Local control as addressed by radiotherapy is still a significant site of failure. Doses higher than achieved by conventional conformal radiotherapy are shown to result in better control rates. Volume restriction seems to be the most important issue in dose escalation. Integration of PET imaging into target definition, omission of clinically uninvolved lymph-node areas and measures to decrease set-up and movement uncertainties are explored. Introduction of risk estimation based on dose-volume analysis for dose prescription may further optimise individual treatment.Lung Cancer 09/2004; 45 Suppl 2:S125-32. DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2004.07.982 · 3.74 Impact Factor