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    ABSTRACT: Abstract HIV/AIDS is a chronic illness, with a range of physical symptoms and psychosocial issues. The complex health and social issues associated with living with HIV mean that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have historically often turned to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This article provides an overview of the literature on HIV and CAM. Databases were searched using keywords for CAM and HIV from inception to December 2012. Articles in English and in Western countries were included; letters, commentaries, news articles, articles on specific therapies and basic science studies were excluded. Of the 282 articles identified, 94 were included. Over half reported prevalence and determinants of CAM use. Lifetime use of CAM by PLWHA ranged from 30% to 90%, with national studies suggesting CAM is used by around 55% of PLWHA, practitioner-based CAM by 15%. Vitamins, herbs, and supplements were most common, followed by prayer, meditation, and spiritual approaches. CAM use was predicted by length of time since HIV diagnosis, and a greater number of medications/symptoms, with CAM often used to address limitations or problems with antiretroviral therapy. CAM users rarely rejected conventional medicine, but a number of CAM can have potentially serious side effects or interactions with ART. CAM was used as a self-management approach, providing PLWHA with an active role in their healthcare and sense of control. Clinicians, particularly nurses, should consider discussing CAM with patients as part of patient-centered care, to encourage valuable self-management and ensure patient safety.
    AIDS patient care and STDs 09/2013; 27(9):503-10. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies of sexual behavior have shown that individuals vary greatly in their number of sexual partners over time, but it has proved difficult to obtain parameter estimates relating to the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission except in small-scale contact tracing studies. Recent developments in molecular phylodynamics have provided new routes to obtain these parameter estimates, and current clinical practice provides suitable data for entire infected populations. A phylodynamic analysis was performed on partial pol gene sequences obtained for routine clinical care from 14,560 individuals, representing approximately 60% of the HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) under care in the United Kingdom. Among individuals linked to others in the data set, 29% are linked to only 1 individual, 41% are linked to 2-10 individuals, and 29% are linked to ≥10 individuals. The right-skewed degree distribution can be approximated by a power law, but the data are best fitted by a Waring distribution for all time depths. For time depths of 5-7 years, the distribution parameter ρ lies within the range that indicates infinite variance. The transmission network among UK MSM is characterized by preferential association such that a randomly distributed intervention would not be expected to stop the epidemic.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 204(9):1463-9. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate life expectancy for people with HIV undergoing treatment compared with life expectancy in the general population and to assess the impact on life expectancy of late treatment, defined as CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) at start of antiretroviral therapy. Cohort study. Outpatient HIV clinics throughout the United Kingdom. Population Adult patients from the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Study with CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/mm(3) at start of antiretroviral therapy in 1996-2008. Life expectancy at the exact age of 20 (the average additional years that will be lived by a person after age 20), according to the cross sectional age specific mortality rates during the study period. 1248 of 17,661 eligible patients died during 91,203 person years' follow-up. Life expectancy (standard error) at exact age 20 increased from 30.0 (1.2) to 45.8 (1.7) years from 1996-9 to 2006-8. Life expectancy was 39.5 (0.45) for male patients and 50.2 (0.45) years for female patients compared with 57.8 and 61.6 years for men and women in the general population (1996-2006). Starting antiretroviral therapy later than guidelines suggest resulted in up to 15 years' loss of life: at age 20, life expectancy was 37.9 (1.3), 41.0 (2.2), and 53.4 (1.2) years in those starting antiretroviral therapy with CD4 count <100, 100-199, and 200-350 cells/mm(3), respectively. Life expectancy in people treated for HIV infection has increased by over 15 years during 1996-2008, but is still about 13 years less than that of the UK population. The higher life expectancy in women is magnified in those with HIV. Earlier diagnosis and subsequent timely treatment with antiretroviral therapy might increase life expectancy.
    BMJ (online) 01/2011; 343:d6016. · 17.22 Impact Factor

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May 26, 2014

Jane Anderson