Muscle inflammation and MHC class I up-regulation in muscular dystrophy with lack of dysferlin: an immunopathological study.
ABSTRACT Muscle inflammation is characteristic of inflammatory myopathies but also occurs in muscular dystrophy with lack of the sarcolemmal protein dysferlin. We quantified inflammatory cells and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression in muscle from 10 patients with dysferlinopathy. Infiltrating cells were always present although numbers varied considerably; macrophages were more common than T cells, T cytotoxicity was absent, and MHC class I was overexpressed on muscle fibers. These findings differ from polymyositis (PM) but are closely similar to those in SJL/J mice (which lack dysferlin) and emphasize the relationship between absence of dysferlin and immune system abnormalities in muscle.
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ABSTRACT: Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most frequent inflammatory myopathy over the age of fifty. Pathological findings suggest that two processes may contribute to IBM pathogenesis: a primary degenerative process affecting muscle fibre and/or an autoimmune process mediated by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I-restricted cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that muscle-infiltrating CD8+ T cells in IBM display restricted expression of T-cell receptor (TCR)-BV families or evidenced oligoclonal T-cell expansions. This study was performed to investigate whether blood T cells similarly exhibit clonal expansions due to the recirculation of muscle-infiltrating T cells in the periphery. For this, we studied the T-cell repertoire of 17 IBM patients by complementarity-determining-region (CDR) 3 length distribution (immunoscope) analysis of TCR-B transcripts. Mean age was 68 years (range 53-88) and mean duration of the disease was 6.5 years (2-20). Oligoclonal T-cell expansions were observed in the blood of IBM patients. The quantitative average perturbation D index was significantly increased in IBM patients [D = 13.7% +/- 1.2%, mean +/- standard error of measurement (SEM)] as compared with 17 age-matched controls suffering from connective tissue diseases not associated with T-cell repertoire perturbation, that is, dermatomyositis (DM) and systemic sclerosis (9.3 +/- 0.6%, P < 0.005). Nevertheless, there was no correlation between the level of blood perturbation and muscle inflammation. Sorting experiments showed that these perturbations were due to oligoclonal expansions of CD8+ T cells. In the three IBM patients analysed, we could relate the blood expansions to T-cell clones also found in muscle. The clonally expanded blood T cells dramatically responded to interleukin-2 (IL-2) in vitro, suggesting that they had been primed in vivo, presumably in response to yet unknown muscle auto-antigens. Together, our results indicate that clonally expanded muscle-infiltrating CD8+ T cells re-circulate in the blood and support the concept of a CD8+ T-cell-mediated autoimmune component in IBM, similarly to what is observed in polymyositis (PM).Brain 05/2006; 129(Pt 4):986-95. DOI:10.1093/brain/awl020 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although there have been several previous reports of immunohistochemical staining for MHC antigens in muscle biopsies, there appears to be a lack of consensus about its routine use in the diagnostic evaluation of biopsies from patients with suspected inflammatory myopathy. Positive MHC-I staining is nonspecific but is widely used as a marker for inflammatory myopathy, while the role of MHC-II staining is not clearly defined. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of MHC-I and II immunostaining for the diagnosis of inflammatory myopathy in a large group of biopsies from a single reference laboratory. Positive staining for MHC-I was found to have a high sensitivity in biopsies from patients with inflammatory myopathy but a very low specificity, as it was also common in other non-inflammatory myopathies and neurogenic disorders. On the other hand, MHC-II positivity had a much higher specificity in all major subgroups of inflammatory myopathy, especially inclusion body myositis. The findings indicate that the combination of MHC-I and MHC-II staining results in a higher degree of specificity for the diagnosis of inflammatory myopathy and that in biopsies with inflammation, positive MHC-II staining strongly supports the diagnosis of an immune-mediated myopathy. We recommend that immunohistochemical staining for both MHC-I and MHC-II should be included routinely in the diagnostic evaluation of muscle biopsies from patients with suspected inflammatory myopathy. However, as the sensitivity and interpretation of MHC staining may depend on the technique used, further studies are needed to compare procedures in different centres and develop standardised protocols.Neuromuscular Disorders 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2014.06.436 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was performed in order to characterize the types of the infiltrating cells, and the expression profiles of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and membrane attack complex (MAC) in patients with inflammatory myopathies and dysferlinopathy. Immunohistochemical stains were performed using monoclonal antibodies against several inflammatory cell types, MHC class I, and MAC in muscles from inflammatory myopathies and dysferlinopathy. There was significant difference in the types of infiltrating cells between polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and dysferlinopathy, including significantly high CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio and B/T cell ratio in DM. In dysferlinopathy, CD4+ T cells were the most abundant and the proportions of infiltrating cell types were similar to those of DM. MHC class I was expressed in muscle fibers of PM and DM regardless of the presence of inflammatory infiltrates. MAC was expressed in necrotic fibers and vessels of PM and DM. One patient with early stage DM had a MAC deposits on endomysial capillaries. In dysferlinopathy, MAC deposit was also observed on the sarcolemma of nonnecrotic fibers. The analysis of inflammatory cells, MHC class I expressions and MAC deposits may help to differentiate dysferlinopathy from idiopathic inflammatory myopathy.Journal of Korean medical science 12/2009; 24(6):1015-23. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.6.1015 · 1.25 Impact Factor