Atovaquone-proguanil for recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum in Vietnam.
ABSTRACT Malarone, a fixed combination of atovaquone with proguanil (AP), has recently been recognized as a promising treatment against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. In Vietnam, the first-line treatment for P. falciparum malaria is currently a combination of mefloquine and an artemisinin derivative, and the use of AP has not been explored. The aim of the present study, based in Vietnam, was to assess the efficacy of AP when used to treat P. falciparum recrudescences that had occurred after primary treatment with mefloquine-artesunate. All but two of the 39 patients investigated completed follow-up. The mean parasite- and fever-clearance times [and 95% confidence intervals (CI)] after AP treatment were 36 (30-42) and 21 (18-24) h, respectively. Most (32) of the 37 infections that were followed adequately appeared to be eradicated by the AP, the other five recrudescing once more. The overall cure 'rate' and (CI) was 86% (76%-98%). All of the patients tolerated the AP well. Atovaquone-proguanil appears to be a safe and promising alternative treatment for P. falciparum infections in South-east Asia, although the combination is relatively expensive and may not clear some infections with multidrug-resistant parasites.
Article: Modern malaria chemoprophylaxis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Currently available medications for malaria chemoprophylaxis are efficacious but the problems of patient compliance, the advance of parasite drug resistance, and real or perceived serious adverse effects mean that new chemical compounds are needed.Primaquine, which has been widely used to treat relapsing malaria since the 1950s, has been shown to prevent malaria when taken daily. Tafenoquine is a new 8-aminoquinoline with a much longer half-life than primaquine. Field trials to date indicate that tafenoquine is efficacious and can be taken weekly or perhaps even less frequently. Both primaquine and tafenoquine require exact knowledge of a person's glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase status in order to prevent drug-induced haemolysis. Other potential malaria chemoprophylactic drugs such as third-generation antifol compounds and Mannich bases have reached advanced preclinical testing. Mefloquine has been seen to cause serious neuropsychiatric adverse effects on rare occasions. Recent public controversy regarding reputedly common serious adverse effects has made many Western travellers unwilling to take mefloquine. Special risk groups exposed to malaria, such as long-term travellers, children, pregnant women, aircrew and those requiring unimpeded psychomotor reactions, migrants returning to visit malarious countries of origin and febrile persons who have returned from malaria endemic areas, all require a nuanced approach to the use of drugs to prevent malaria. The carrying of therapeutic courses of antimalarial drugs to be taken only if febrile illness develops is indicated in very few travellers despite its appeal to some who fear adverse effects more than they fear potentially lethal malaria infection. Travellers with a significant exposure to malaria require a comprehensive plan for prevention that includes anti-mosquito measures but which is still primarily be based on the regular use of efficacious antimalarial medications.Drugs 02/2005; 65(15):2091-110. DOI:10.2165/00003495-200565150-00003 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) in Vietnam is based on application of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), spraying of insecticides and early microscopic diagnosis of malaria and treatment (EDTM) with artemisinin drugs. This study explores the implementation of the NMCP at provincial level and its impact on malaria incidence (mi) and prevalence in Binh Thuan in southern Vietnam. Data on implementation of EDTM, distribution of ITNs, annual mi and Plasmodium index (pi) were derived from intervention logbooks and surveillance records kept by the provincial Malaria Station since 1988. The relation between interventions and the change of pi over time was analysed with Generalized Estimating Equations. Control activities focused on the highly endemic zones where ITNs were distributed free of charge to ethnic minority groups, including twice yearly re-impregnation, from 1992 onwards. This almost completely replaced insecticide spraying. Complete ITN coverage of these groups was achieved in 1995, constituting 40% of the entire population. In all malaria endemic communes, primary health care posts were consecutively upgraded or installed, mainly between 1992 and 1995, offering EDTM with artemisinin drugs free of charge. Before 1994, mi peaked to over 50/1000, pi to over 16% in the highly endemic zones. In 1998, these had decreased to below 9/1000 and 4% respectively. The effects of the interventions could not be discerned with statistical significance. Malaria incidence and prevalence declined significantly in Vietnam, possibly due to the malaria control efforts, but coinciding with rapid socioeconomic changes.Tropical Medicine & International Health 05/2005; 10(4):357-65. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01387.x · 2.30 Impact Factor