Article

Detection of bacteria and fungi in BacT/Alert standard blood-culture bottles.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 1.55). 10/2003; 9(3):227-32. DOI: 10.1007/s10156-003-0245-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Incubation periods of aerobic (AE) and anaerobic (AN) blood-culture bottles with the BacT/Alert system were assessed in our laboratory. We reviewed the results of 6229 blood-culture sets collected at Kyoto University Hospital from January 1999 to December 2000. Of these sets, 731 (11.7%) were positive for bacteria or yeast. Excluding 87 sets with growth evidence on arrival, of the 644 positive blood-culture sets from 341 patients, a total of 691 organisms were isolated. Of the 691 organisms, 413 (59.8%) were recovered from both bottles, 206 (29.8%) were recovered only from the AE bottle, and 72 (10.4%) were recovered only from the AN bottle. The AE bottle was significantly superior to the AN bottle in terms of both recovery rate and detection time for overall organisms, but there was no significant difference in detection time for facultative anaerobic bacteria between the two bottles. Of the 691 organisms, 530 (76.7%) were classified as usual pathogens. Of the 530 usual pathogens, 501 (94.5%) were recovered in at least one bottle of each set within the first 3 days, and 523 (98.7%) within the first 5 days of incubation. Twenty-nine organisms initially isolated on day 4 or later were recovered from 19 patients. Of these, chart reviews indicated that 21 organisms recovered from 11 patients were considered clinically significant bacteria, and the reviews also revealed that no patient had a treatment plan altered based on the results of positive blood culture. Seven organisms initially isolated on day 6 or later were recovered from 7 patients. Chart reviews revealed that 5 of these organisms from 5 patients were considered to be clinically significant. In conclusion, if the incubation period had been less than 3 days, 11 patients with clinically significant bacteremia or fungemia, (3.2% of all patients with bacteremia or fungemia) would have been undiagnosed. Similarly, with an incubation period of 5 days, 5 such patients (1.5%) would have been undiagnosed.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
100 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 53-year old male admitted for episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia subjected to electrical cardioversion, carrier of a right femoral central venous catheter, began with febrile peaks, and Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated in the blood cultures. What is the value of isolation in the blood cultures of S. epidermidis, a microorganism that forms a part of the usual flora of the skin and mucous of the patient? How should this situation be managed? Should an antimicrobial agent be administered? Which one? For how long?
    Revista Clínica Española 04/2011; 211(5):247-50. · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine candidemia incidence among patients in a medical intensive-care unit (MICU) and the associated mortality rate and to identify risk factors associated with candidemia. We retrospectively performed a 1:3 matched case-control study of MICU patients with candidemia. Controls were matched for sex, age, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. Candidemia incidence was 9.1 per 1,000 admissions. The most common pathogen was Candida albicans. Crude mortality was 96% among candidemia patients and 52% among controls (P<0.001). Mortality differed significantly between the groups according to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (P=0.024). Multivariate analysis identified the following independent risk factors for candidemia: central venous catheterization (odds ratio [OR] = 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2-9.0), previous steroid therapy (OR=4.7, 95% CI=1.8-12.1), blood transfusion during the same admission period (OR=6.3, 95% CI=2.4-16.7), and hepatic failure upon MICU admission (OR=6.9, 95% CI=1.7-28.4). In conclusion, we identify an additional independent risk factor for candidemia, the presence of hepatic failure on MICU admission. Therefore, increased awareness of risk factors, including hepatic failure, is necessary for the management of candidemia.
    Journal of Korean medical science 05/2010; 25(5):671-6. · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The judicious use of antibiotics is an important means to limit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Although specific guidelines for neonates are often lacking, antibiotic stewardship principles can be applied to the neonatal intensive care unit. Principles include accurately identifying patients who need antibiotic therapy, using local epidemiology to guide the selection of empiric therapy, avoiding agents with overlapping activity, adjusting antibiotics when culture results become available, monitoring for toxicity, and optimizing the dose, route, and duration of therapy. Neonatal intensive care units should develop interdisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship teams with the support of their institutions. Prescriber audit and feedback, as well as preauthorization and formulary restriction of selected antibiotics, are recommended antimicrobial stewardship interventions. Ancillary strategies include education and computerized decision support. Metrics to evaluate antimicrobial stewardship programs should include measurements of patient safety and quality, such as rates of adverse drug events, and appropriate dosing and timing of perioperative prophylaxis.
    Seminars in perinatology 12/2012; 36(6):431-6. · 2.33 Impact Factor