Pulmonary toxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes in mice 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation
ABSTRACT Nanomaterials are part of an industrial revolution to develop lightweight but strong materials for a variety of purposes. Single-wall carbon nanotubes are an important member of this class of materials. They structurally resemble rolled-up graphite sheets, usually with one end capped; individually they are about 1 nm in diameter and several microns long, but they often pack tightly together to form rods or ropes of microscopic sizes. Carbon nanotubes possess unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties and have many potential applications in the electronics, computer, and aerospace industries. Unprocessed nanotubes are very light and could become airborne and potentially reach the lungs. Because the toxicity of nanotubes in the lung is not known, their pulmonary toxicity was investigated. The three products studied were made by different methods and contained different types and amounts of residual catalytic metals. Mice were intratracheally instilled with 0, 0.1, or 0.5 mg of carbon nanotubes, a carbon black negative control, or a quartz positive control and euthanized 7 d or 90 d after the single treatment for histopathological study of the lungs. All nanotube products induced dose-dependent epithelioid granulomas and, in some cases, interstitial inflammation in the animals of the 7-d groups. These lesions persisted and were more pronounced in the 90-d groups; the lungs of some animals also revealed peribronchial inflammation and necrosis that had extended into the alveolar septa. The lungs of mice treated with carbon black were normal, whereas those treated with high-dose quartz revealed mild to moderate inflammation. These results show that, for the test conditions described here and on an equal-weight basis, if carbon nanotubes reach the lungs, they are much more toxic than carbon black and can be more toxic than quartz, which is considered a serious occupational health hazard in chronic inhalation exposures.
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary barrier function plays a pivotal role in protection from inhaled particles. However, some nano-scaled particles, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT), have demonstrated the ability to penetrate this barrier in animal models, resulting in an unusual, rapid interstitial fibrosis. To delineate the underlying mechanism and specific bio-effect of inhaled nanoparticles in respiratory toxicity, models of lung epithelial barriers are required that allow accurate representation of in vivo systems; however, there is currently a lack of consistent methods to do so. Thus, this work demonstrates a well-characterized in vitro model of pulmonary barrier function using Calu-3 cells, and provides the experimental conditions required for achieving tight junction complexes in cell culture, with trans-epithelial electrical resistance measurement used as a biosensor for proper barrier formation and integrity. The effects of cell number and serum constituents have been examined and we found that changes in each of these parameters can greatly affect barrier formation. Our data demonstrate that use of 5.0x104 Calu-3 cells/well in the Transwell cell culture system, with 10% serum concentrations in culture media is optimal for assessing epithelial barrier function. In addition, we have utilized CNT exposure to analyze the dose-, time-, and nanoparticle property- dependent alterations of epithelial barrier permeability as a means to validate this model. Such high throughput in vitro cell models of the epithelium could be used to predict the interaction of other nanoparticles with lung epithelial barriers to mimic respiratory behavior in vivo, thus providing essential tools and bio-sensing techniques that can be uniformly employed.12/2014; 3. DOI:10.1016/j.sbsr.2014.12.002
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ABSTRACT: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) based nanofila-ments—nanotube, nanowire, nanorod—have gained interest for industrial, electrical, and as of recent, medical applications due to their superior performance over TiO2 nanoparticles. Safety assessment of these nanomaterials is critical to protect workers, patients, and bystanders as these technologies become widely implemented. Additionally, TiO2 based nanofilaments can easily be inhaled by humans and their high aspect ratio, much like asbestos fibers, may make them toxic in the respiratory system. The tendency of TiO2 nanofilaments to aggregate makes evaluating their nanotoxicity difficult and the results controversial, because incomplete dispersion results in larger parti-cle sizes that are no longer in the nano dimensional size range. TiO2 nanofilaments are aggregated and difficult to disperse homogeneously in solution by conventional methods, such as sonication and vor-texing. In this study, a microfluidic device was utilized to produce stable, homogeneous dosing solutions necessary for in vitro toxicity evaluation by eliminat-ing any toxicity caused by aggregated TiO2 nanom-aterials. The toxicity results could then be directly correlated to the TiO2 nanostructure itself. The toxicity of four TiO2 nanogeometries—nanotube, nanowire, nanorod, and nanoparticle—were assessed in RPMI 2650 human nasal epithelial cells at repre-sentative day, week, and month in vitro exposure dosages of 10, 50, 100 lg/ml, respectively. All TiO2 based nanomaterials dispersed by the microfluidic method were nontoxic to RPMI 2650 cells at the concentrations tested, whereas higher concentrations of 100 lg/ml of nanowires and nanotubes dispersed by sonication reduced viability up to 27 %, indicating that in vitro toxicity results may be controlled by the dispersion of dosing solutions.Journal of Nanoparticle Research 11/2014; 16(11):2695. DOI:10.1007/s11051-014-2695-5 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The development of products containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a major achievement of nanotechnology, although concerns regarding risk of toxic effects linger if the hazards associated with these materials are not thoroughly investigated. Exposure to CNTs has been associated with depletion of antioxidants, increased intracellular production of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory signaling in cultured cells with primary function in the immune system as well as epithelial, endothelial and stromal cells. Pre-treatment with antioxidants has been shown to attenuate these effects, indicating a dependency of oxidative stress on cellular responses to CNT exposure. CNT-mediated oxidative stress in cell cultures has been associated with elevated levels of lipid peroxidation products and oxidatively damaged DNA. Investigations of oxidative stress endpoints in animal studies have utilized pulmonary, gastrointestinal, intravenous and intraperitoneal exposure routes, documenting elevated levels of lipid peroxidation products and oxidatively damaged DNA nucleobases especially in the lungs and liver, which to some extent occur concomitantly with altered levels of components in the antioxidant defense system (glutathione, superoxide dismutase or catalase). CNTs are biopersistent high aspect ratio materials, and some are rigid with lengths that lead to frustrated phagocytosis and pleural accumulation. There is accumulating evidence showing that pulmonary exposure to CNTs is associated with fibrosis and neoplastic changes in the lungs, and cardiovascular disease. As oxidative stress and inflammation responses are implicated in the development of these diseases, converging lines of evidence indicate that exposure to CNTs is associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary diseases through generation of a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant milieu in the lungs.Archive für Toxikologie 09/2014; 88(11). DOI:10.1007/s00204-014-1356-x · 5.08 Impact Factor