Article

The retrieval function of the KDEL receptor requires PKA phosphorylation of its C-terminus.

Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Seville, 41012 Seville, Spain.
Molecular Biology of the Cell (Impact Factor: 4.6). 11/2003; 14(10):4114-25. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E03-04-0194
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The KDEL receptor is a Golgi/intermediate compartment-located integral membrane protein that carries out the retrieval of escaped ER proteins bearing a C-terminal KDEL sequence. This occurs throughout retrograde traffic mediated by COPI-coated transport carriers. The role of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the KDEL receptor in this process has been investigated. Deletion of this domain did not affect receptor subcellular localization although cells expressing this truncated form of the receptor failed to retain KDEL ligands intracellularly. Permeabilized cells incubated with ATP and GTP exhibited tubular processes-mediated redistribution from the Golgi area to the ER of the wild-type receptor, whereas the truncated form lacking the C-terminal domain remained concentrated in the Golgi. As revealed with a peptide-binding assay, this domain did not interact with both coatomer and ARF-GAP unless serine 209 was mutated to aspartic acid. In contrast, alanine replacement of serine 209 inhibited coatomer/ARF-GAP recruitment, receptor redistribution into the ER, and intracellular retention of KDEL ligands. Serine 209 was phosphorylated by both cytosolic and recombinant protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit. Inhibition of endogenous PKA activity with H89 blocked Golgi-ER transport of the native receptor but did not affect redistribution to the ER of a mutated form bearing aspartic acid at position 209. We conclude that PKA phosphorylation of serine 209 is required for the retrograde transport of the KDEL receptor from the Golgi complex to the ER from which the retrieval of proteins bearing the KDEL signal depends.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
134 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Unless there are mechanisms to selectively retain membrane proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or in the Golgi apparatus, they automatically proceed downstream to the plasma or vacuole membranes. Two types of coat protein complex I (COPI)-interacting motifs in the cytosolic tails of membrane proteins seem to facilitate membrane retention in the early secretory pathway of plants: a dilysine (KKXX) motif (which is typical of p24 proteins) for the ER and a KXE/D motif (which occurs in the Arabidopsis endomembrane protein EMP12) for the Golgi apparatus. The KXE/D motif is highly conserved in all eukaryotic EMPs and is additionally present in hundreds of other proteins of unknown subcellular localization and function. This novel signal may represent a new general mechanism for Golgi targeting and the retention of polytopic integral membrane proteins.
    Trends in Plant Science 04/2014; · 11.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding how host proteins are targeted to pathogen-specified organelles, like the chlamydial inclusion, is fundamentally important to understanding the biogenesis of these unique subcellular compartments and how they maintain autonomy within the cell. Syntaxin 6, which localizes to the chlamydial inclusion, contains an YGRL signal sequence. The YGRL functions to return syntaxin 6 to the trans-Golgi from the plasma membrane, and deletion of the YGRL signal sequence from syntaxin 6 also prevents the protein from localizing to the chlamydial inclusion. YGRL is one of three YXXL (YGRL, YQRL, and YKGL) signal sequences which target proteins to the trans-Golgi. We designed various constructs of eukaryotic proteins to test the specificity and propensity of YXXL sequences to target the inclusion. The YGRL signal sequence redirects proteins (e.g., Tgn38, furin, syntaxin 4) that normally do not localize to the chlamydial inclusion. Further, the requirement of the YGRL signal sequence for syntaxin 6 localization to inclusions formed by different species of Chlamydia is conserved. These data indicate that there is an inherent property of the chlamydial inclusion, which allows it to recognize the YGRL signal sequence. To examine whether this "inherent property" was protein or lipid in nature, we asked if deletion of the YGRL signal sequence from syntaxin 6 altered the ability of the protein to interact with proteins or lipids. Deletion or alteration of the YGRL from syntaxin 6 does not appreciably impact syntaxin 6-protein interactions, but does decrease syntaxin 6-lipid interactions. Intriguingly, data also demonstrate that YKGL or YQRL can successfully substitute for YGRL in localization of syntaxin 6 to the chlamydial inclusion. Importantly and for the first time, we are establishing that a eukaryotic signal sequence targets the chlamydial inclusion.
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 09/2014; 4:129. · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Core components of the secretory pathway have largely been identified and studied in single cell systems such as the budding yeast S. cerevisiae or in mammalian tissue culture. These studies provide details on the molecular functions of the secretory machinery; they fail, however, to provide insight into the role of these proteins in the context of specialized organs of higher eukaryotes. Here, we identify and characterize the first loss-of-function mutations in a KDEL receptor gene from higher eukaryotes. Transcripts from the Drosophila KDEL receptor gene KdelR - formerly known as dmErd2 - are provided maternally and, at later stages, are at elevated levels in several embryonic cell types, including the salivary gland secretory cells, the fat body and the epidermis. We show that, unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae Erd2 mutants, which are viable, KdelR mutations are early larval lethal, with homozygous mutant animals dying as first instar larvae. KdelR mutants have larval cuticle defects similar to those observed with loss-of-function mutations in other core secretory pathway genes and with mutations in CrebA, which encodes a bZip transcription factor that coordinately upregulates secretory pathway component genes in specialized secretory cell types. Using the salivary gland, we demonstrate a requirement for KdelR in maintaining the ER pool of a subset of soluble resident ER proteins. These studies underscore the utility of the Drosophila salivary gland as a unique system for studying the molecular machinery of the secretory pathway in vivo in a complex eukaryote.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77618. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
24 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014