PURPOSE: Recent developments in the design of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have made three-dimensional (3D) data acquisition attractive because of significantly higher sensitivity compared to the conventional 2D mode (with lead/tungsten septa extended). However, the increased count rate in 3D mode comes at the cost of increased scatter, randoms, and dead time. Several schemes to correct for these effects have been proposed and validated in phantom studies. In this study, we evaluated the overall improvement afforded by 3D imaging in quantitative human brain PET studies carried out at our institution.METHODS: Subjects were studied using sequential/interleaved 2D and 3D data acquisition with a GE Advance scanner. We calculated regional and global cerebral glucose metabolism with [(18)F]flourodeoxyglucose (FDG) and estimated rate constants for striatal [(18)F]fluorodopa (FDOPA) uptake.RESULTS: FDG: Global mean glucose metabolic rates were in almost complete agreement (within 1%) between the two modes whereas the regional differences ranged from -7.7% to +9% for all cortical structures. However, for small regions (<2 cm(2)) like caudate nuclei, the maximum difference was 14.7%. FDOPA: A significant improvement in image quality was evident in 3D mode and there was complete agreement between the estimated parameters in the two scanning modes for the same noise equivalent counts: Striatal-to-occipital ratio (SOR) and striatal FDOPA uptake (K(i)(FD)) had mean differences of less than 2% and 5%, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: 3D FDG studies can be done with either half the injected dose or half the scan duration to a comparable 2D study. 3D PET imaging has distinct advantages over 2D in the quantitative fluorodopa studies.
"The patients fasted overnight before PET scanning. PET studies were performed in 3D mode using the GE Advance tomograph at North Shore University Hospital (Dhawan et al., 1998). This eightring bismuth germanate scanner provided 35 two-dimensional image planes with an axial field of view of 14.5 cm and a transaxial resolution of 4.2 mm (FWHM) in all directions. "
"Mood (from 'sad' to 'happy') and nervousness were measured with analogue rating scales (range 0–6) with single questions asking subjects to rate their levels of these two states. PET scans were obtained on a General Electric Advance NXi scanner (General Electric Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI, USA) with 35 slices in 3D mode, transaxial resolution FWHM 5.2–7.7 mm (Dhawan et al., 1998). Attenuation correction scanning was performed with the germanium rotating rod source built into the scanner for 5 min at the end of the scanning session, and this attenuation correction was applied to all scans. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our group recently reported that smoking a regular cigarette (1.2-1.4 mg nicotine) resulted in 88% occupancy of brain alpha4beta2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, this study did not determine whether nicotine inhalation or the many other pharmacological and behavioural factors that occur during smoking resulted in this receptor occupancy. If nicotine is solely responsible for alpha4beta2* nAChR occupancy from smoking, then (as estimated from our previous data) smoking a denicotinized (0.05 mg nicotine) or a low-nicotine (0.6 mg nicotine) cigarette (commonly used for research and clinical purposes) would result in substantial 23% and 78% alpha4beta2* nAChR occupancies, respectively, and a plasma nicotine concentration of 0.87 ng/ml would result in 50% alpha4beta2* nAChR occupancy (EC50). Twenty-four positron emission tomography sessions were performed on tobacco-dependent smokers, using 2-[F-18]fluoro-A-85380 (2-FA), a radiotracer that binds to alpha4beta2* nAChRs. 2-FA displacement was determined from before to 3.1 hours after either: no smoking, smoking a denicotinized cigarette, or smoking a low-nicotine cigarette. Analysis of this PET data revealed that smoking a denicotinized and a low-nicotine cigarette resulted in 26% and 79% alpha4beta2* nAChR occupancies, respectively, across three regions of interest. The EC50 determined from this dataset was 0.75 ng/ml. Given the consistency of findings between our previous study with regular cigarettes and the present study, nicotine inhalation during smoking appears to be solely responsible for alpha4beta2* nAChR occupancy, with other factors (if present at all) having either short-lived or very minor effects. Furthermore, smoking a denicotinized cigarette resulted in substantial nAChR occupancy.
The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2008; 12(3):305-16. DOI:10.1017/S146114570800922X · 4.01 Impact Factor
"The benefits of 2D and 3D acquisition modes are dependent on several factors, most notably the activity distribution inside and outside the field of view of the scanner. The clinical use of fully 3D mode has demonstrated advantages over 2D mode in brain imaging (Dhawan et al 1998). Fully 3D mode is frequently used in wholebody PET scanning as well although the advantages of 3D over 2D mode for whole-body scanning are less well established (Raylman et al 1999, Brix et al 1999, Votaw et al 2001, Lartizien et al 2002, 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured count rates and scatter fraction on the Discovery STE PET/CT scanner in conventional 2D and 3D acquisition modes, and in a partial collimation mode between 2D and 3D. As part of the evaluation of using partial collimation, we estimated global count rates using a scanner model that combined computer simulations with an empirical live-time function. Our measurements followed the NEMA NU2 count rate and scatter-fraction protocol to obtain true, scattered and random coincidence events, from which noise equivalent count (NEC) rates were calculated. The effect of patient size was considered by using 27 cm and 35 cm diameter phantoms, in addition to the standard 20 cm diameter cylindrical count-rate phantom. Using the scanner model, we evaluated two partial collimation cases: removing half of the septa (2.5D) and removing two-thirds of the septa (2.7D). Based on predictions of the model, a 2.7D collimator was constructed. Count rates and scatter fractions were then measured in 2D, 2.7D and 3D. The scanner model predicted relative NEC variation with activity, as confirmed by measurements. The measured 2.7D NEC was equal or greater than 3D NEC for all activity levels in the 27 cm and 35 cm phantoms. In the 20 cm phantom, 3D NEC was somewhat higher ( approximately 15%) than 2.7D NEC at 100 MBq. For all higher activity concentrations, 2.7D NEC was greater and peaked 26% above the 3D peak NEC. The peak NEC in 2.7D mode occurred at approximately 425 MBq, and was 26-50% greater than the peak 3D NEC, depending on object size. NEC in 2D was considerably lower, except at relatively high activity concentrations. Partial collimation shows promise for improved noise equivalent count rates in clinical imaging without altering other detector parameters.
Physics in Medicine and Biology 08/2008; 53(14):3723-38. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/53/14/002 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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