Utter J, Neumark-Sztainer D, Jeffery R, Story MCouch potatoes or French fries: are sedentary behaviors associated with body mass index, physical activity, and dietary behaviors among adolescents? J Am Diet Assoc 103(10): 1298-1305

Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 10/2003; 103(10):1298-305. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-8223(03)01079-4
Source: PubMed


To describe the demographic characteristics of adolescent boys and girls who engage in three sedentary behaviors (television/video use, computer use, and reading/homework), and to explore how each sedentary activity is associated with body mass index (BMI), dietary behaviors, and leisure time physical activity.
This study draws on data collected from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a school-based survey examining personal, behavioral, and socioenvironmental factors that are associated with nutritional intake among adolescents.
The study sample consists of 4746 middle and high school students from 31 public schools in a metropolitan area of the upper Midwest. All students were invited to participate. The overall response rate for Project EAT was 81.5%. Data collection was completed during the 1998-1999 school year.
Multivariate linear regression was used for examining associations between independent and dependent variables, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. All differences were considered statistically significant at P<.05.
Among boys, television/video use and time spent reading/doing homework were positively associated with BMI (P<.05), whereas for girls television/video and computer use were positively associated with BMI (P<.05). High television/video use among boys and girls was associated with more unhealthful dietary behaviors (eg, increased consumption of soft drinks, fried foods, and snacks) (P<.05). In contrast, time spent reading/doing homework was associated with more healthful dietary behaviors (eg, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables) (P<.05). Leisure time physical activity was not associated with television/video use among boys or girls, but was positively associated with computer use and time spent reading/doing homework (P<.05). Applications/Conclusions Messages and advice aimed at reducing time spent in sedentary activities should be targeted at television/video use instead of time spent reading, doing homework, or using a computer. Nutrition education should incorporate messages about the influence of the media and advertising on dietary behaviors.

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    • "In addition, previous findings on the reliability of these items suggest acceptable reliability (Schmitz et al. 2004; Utter et al. 2003; Liu et al. 2010). The test–retest correlations found by Utter et al. (2003) in the examined items was higher. However, the period between the test and retest in this study was shorter (2 weeks). "
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    ABSTRACT: Better assessment of the reliability of the physical activity and sedentary behaviour items across countries in all WHO regions is highly needed. The aim of the study was to examine the test-retest reliability of selected physical activity and sedentary behaviour items of the HBSC questionnaire in Czech, Slovak and Polish adolescents. We obtained data from 693 Czech, Slovak and Polish (50.9 % boys) primary school pupils, grades five (mean age = 11.08; SD = 0.45) and nine (mean age = 15.12; SD = 0.45), who participated in a test-retest study in 2013. We used the single measures of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and Cohen's Kappa statistic to estimate the test-retest reliability of all selected items within the sample and stratified by gender, age group and country. Both physical activity items (VPA and MVPA) and most of the sedentary behaviour items showed moderate agreement (ICC 0.41-0.60) and a similarly moderate correlation (Cohen's Kappa 0.3-0.5) after dichotomization. The physical activity and sedentary behaviour items of the HBSC questionnaire seem to be at the borderline of reliability to be used in adolescents.
    International Journal of Public Health 12/2014; 60(1). DOI:10.1007/s00038-014-0628-9 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    • "Overweight and obesity generally result from a long-term imbalance between energy intake (determined by dietary intake) and energy expenditure (mainly determined by physical activity and sedentary behaviors) [11]. Regarding the latter, sedentary activities such as watching TV and playing video games, have been found to be associated with negative health outcomes such as overweight and obesity, partly independent of diet and moderate to vigorous physical activity [12-16]. It has been suggested that reductions in sedentary behavior may be as effective as or even more effective than increasing physical activity directly in decreasing BMI, and percentage overweight [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents.
    BMC Public Health 03/2014; 14(1):275. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-275 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Sedentary behaviours such as television viewing and computer use are on the rise and represent western societies less demanding physical landscape [1]. Research on sedentary behaviour has focused on television viewing: Television viewing has been associated with obesity [2] [3] [4] and linked to low levels of physical activity [2] [5] and unhealthy eating behaviours [2] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] in children. Numerous studies have found an inverse relationship between television viewing time and children's fruit and/or vegetable consumption [6] [7] [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Increased screen-time has been linked to unhealthy dietary practices but most studies have looked primarily at television viewing or an amalgam. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific screen-time (TV, computer, video game) and a selection of healthy dietary intake measures (calories, carbohydrate, fat, sugar, fruit, vegetables, fibre and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)) in a group of Canadian children. We used single day sedentary and dietary recalls to assess sedentary behaviour and diet in 1423 children (9.90 (0.58) y; 737 girls, 686 boys) from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to explore sedentary behaviour-diet relationships. TV and video game use were correlated with higher calories, fat, sugar and SSB consumption (r = 0.07 to 0.09; p <.01) and lower fibre intake (r =-0.05 to-0.06; p <.05). TV use was also correlated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. Regression analyses showed that when controlling for other variables, only TV and video game use predicted sugar and SSB consumption (=.06 to.08; p <.05). Computer use was correlated with calories but did not significantly predict any of the measures of dietary intake. Although screen time was significantly associated with less healthy eating profiles, it did not account for much variance in dietary behaviour of these children.
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