Utter J, Neumark-Sztainer D, Jeffery R, Story MCouch potatoes or French fries: are sedentary behaviors associated with body mass index, physical activity, and dietary behaviors among adolescents? J Am Diet Assoc 103(10): 1298-1305

Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 10/2003; 103(10):1298-305. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-8223(03)01079-4
Source: PubMed


To describe the demographic characteristics of adolescent boys and girls who engage in three sedentary behaviors (television/video use, computer use, and reading/homework), and to explore how each sedentary activity is associated with body mass index (BMI), dietary behaviors, and leisure time physical activity.
This study draws on data collected from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a school-based survey examining personal, behavioral, and socioenvironmental factors that are associated with nutritional intake among adolescents.
The study sample consists of 4746 middle and high school students from 31 public schools in a metropolitan area of the upper Midwest. All students were invited to participate. The overall response rate for Project EAT was 81.5%. Data collection was completed during the 1998-1999 school year.
Multivariate linear regression was used for examining associations between independent and dependent variables, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. All differences were considered statistically significant at P<.05.
Among boys, television/video use and time spent reading/doing homework were positively associated with BMI (P<.05), whereas for girls television/video and computer use were positively associated with BMI (P<.05). High television/video use among boys and girls was associated with more unhealthful dietary behaviors (eg, increased consumption of soft drinks, fried foods, and snacks) (P<.05). In contrast, time spent reading/doing homework was associated with more healthful dietary behaviors (eg, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables) (P<.05). Leisure time physical activity was not associated with television/video use among boys or girls, but was positively associated with computer use and time spent reading/doing homework (P<.05). Applications/Conclusions Messages and advice aimed at reducing time spent in sedentary activities should be targeted at television/video use instead of time spent reading, doing homework, or using a computer. Nutrition education should incorporate messages about the influence of the media and advertising on dietary behaviors.

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    • "In addition, previous findings on the reliability of these items suggest acceptable reliability (Schmitz et al. 2004; Utter et al. 2003; Liu et al. 2010). The test–retest correlations found by Utter et al. (2003) in the examined items was higher. However, the period between the test and retest in this study was shorter (2 weeks). "
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    ABSTRACT: Better assessment of the reliability of the physical activity and sedentary behaviour items across countries in all WHO regions is highly needed. The aim of the study was to examine the test-retest reliability of selected physical activity and sedentary behaviour items of the HBSC questionnaire in Czech, Slovak and Polish adolescents. We obtained data from 693 Czech, Slovak and Polish (50.9 % boys) primary school pupils, grades five (mean age = 11.08; SD = 0.45) and nine (mean age = 15.12; SD = 0.45), who participated in a test-retest study in 2013. We used the single measures of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and Cohen's Kappa statistic to estimate the test-retest reliability of all selected items within the sample and stratified by gender, age group and country. Both physical activity items (VPA and MVPA) and most of the sedentary behaviour items showed moderate agreement (ICC 0.41-0.60) and a similarly moderate correlation (Cohen's Kappa 0.3-0.5) after dichotomization. The physical activity and sedentary behaviour items of the HBSC questionnaire seem to be at the borderline of reliability to be used in adolescents.
    International Journal of Public Health 12/2014; 60(1). DOI:10.1007/s00038-014-0628-9 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    • "Overweight and obesity generally result from a long-term imbalance between energy intake (determined by dietary intake) and energy expenditure (mainly determined by physical activity and sedentary behaviors) [11]. Regarding the latter, sedentary activities such as watching TV and playing video games, have been found to be associated with negative health outcomes such as overweight and obesity, partly independent of diet and moderate to vigorous physical activity [12-16]. It has been suggested that reductions in sedentary behavior may be as effective as or even more effective than increasing physical activity directly in decreasing BMI, and percentage overweight [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games -i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents.Methods/design: The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 - 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents' measured BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents' self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents.Trial registration: Dutch Trial register NTR3228.
    BMC Public Health 03/2014; 14(1):275. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-275 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Furthermore, physical activity among Brazilian adolescents was significantly related to a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, whereas television viewing was associated with a higher intake of fried food and snacks (Fernandes et al., 2011). The findings reported in the present study, which show that total screen time for Saudi adolescents was significantly associated with an increased consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and fast foods, are in agreement with the results of many previous studies conducted on adolescents from Brazil (Fernandes et al., 2011), the USA (Utter et al., 2003) and European countries (Vereecken et al., 2006). In addition, associations of sedentary activities with a higher consumption of fast foods, French fries/potato chips, sweetened beverages and energy drinks and a lower intake of fruit and vegetables were also reported in French pre-adolescents (Platat et al., 2006) and Australian adolescents (Scully et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the inter-relationships between lifestyle factors in youth is important with respect to the development of effective promotional programmes for healthy eating and active living. The present study aimed to explore the associations of dietary habits (DH) with physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Saudi adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years of age relative to gender. Data were obtained from the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study, a school-based multicentre lifestyle study conducted in 2009/2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used. The number of participants with complete data for DH and PA was 2886 and the respective number for DH and ST was 2822. Assessment included weight, height, body mass index, total daily ST (television viewing, video/computer games and Internet use), PA and DH using self-reported questionnaires. Females were significantly more sedentary and less active than males (P < 0.001). Two-way analysis of covariance, controlling for age, showed significant (P < 0.05) gender by PA and gender by ST interactions for several DH. Logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations of higher PA with a higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, milk, French fries/potato chips and energy drinks, whereas higher ST was significantly associated with a higher consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods, cake/doughnuts and energy drinks. Healthful dietary habits were associated mostly with PA, whereas sedentary behaviours, independent of PA, negatively impacted upon eating behaviours. The low PA levels and high sedentary levels of Saudi females represent a great concern. The results reported in the present study have important implications for both youth public health policies and intervention programmes.
    Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 07/2013; 27(s2). DOI:10.1111/jhn.12147 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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