The spore wall and polar tube proteins of the microsporidian Nosema grylli: the major spore wall protein is released before spore extrusion.
ABSTRACT Incubation of Nosema grylli spores in alkaline--saline solution (10 mM KOH, 170 mM KCl) leads to solubilization of the major spore wall protein of 40 kDa (p40). Both the compounds of this solution are crucial for p40 solubilization. After spore incubation in 170 mM KCl no proteins were released in the medium. In contrast, 10 mM KOH causes a release of many spore proteins but only a small amount of p40. A long storage of spores (over a year) in water or 0.02% sodium azide results in a sharp decrease of p40 content. Specific polyclonal antibodies were obtained by immunization of rabbits with isolated p40. The specificity of serum was confirmed by immunoblotting. IFA showed reliable reaction on the envelopes of sporonts and sporoblasts, whereas only part of spores reacted with antibodies. This distinction may be due to changing surface antigens during spore maturation. Solubilization of p40 under alkaline conditions could be associated with spore extrusion, since a subsequent transfer of spores to neutral solution leads to their discharge. Subsequent wash of discharged spores with 1-3% SDS, 9 M urea and treatment by 100% 2-ME result in solubilization of protein of 56 kDa (p56). The maximum concentration of 2-ME is important for isolation of pure p56. Evidence has been provided that p56 is a protein of N. grylli polar tubes. Treatment of discharged spores by 2-ME in the presence of SDS results in solubilization of four additional proteins with molecular weights about 46, 34, 21 and 15 kDa.
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ABSTRACT: Microsporidia are eukaryotic, obligate intracellular organisms defined by small spores that contain a single invasion organelle, the polar tube, which coils around the interior of the spore. When these parasites infect host cells, the polar tube is discharged from the anterior pole of the spore, pierces the cell, and transfers sporoplasm into the cytoplasm of the host. Three polar tube proteins (PTP1, PTP2, and PTP3) have been identified in this structure. The interactions of these proteins in the assembly and function of the polar tube are not known. This study was undertaken to examine the protein interactions of the Encephalitozoon cuniculi polar tube proteins (EcPTPs). Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the colocalization of EcPTP1, EcPTP2, and EcPTP3 to the polar tube. Experiments using cross-linkers indicated that EcPTP1, EcPTP2, and EcPTP3 form a complex in the polar tube, which was confirmed by immunoprecipitation using EcPTP1 antiserum. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that full-length EcPTP1, EcPTP2, and EcPTP3 interact with each other in vivo. Both the N and C termini of EcPTP1 were involved in these interactions, but the central region of this protein, which contains a repetitive motif, was not. Further studies of polar tube proteins and their structural interactions may help elucidate the formation of the polar tube during the invasion process.Infection and immunity 03/2010; 78(6):2745-53. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: All of the members of the Microsporidia possess a unique, highly specialised structure, the polar tube. This article reviews the available data on the organisation, structure and function of this invasion organelle. It was over 100 years ago that Thelohan accurately described the microsporidian polar tube and the triggering of its discharge. In the spore, the polar tube is connected at the anterior end, and then coils around the sporoplasm. Upon appropriate environmental stimulation the polar tube rapidly discharges out of the spore pierces a cell membrane and serves as a conduit for sporoplasm passage into the new host cell. The mechanism of germination of spores, however, remains to be definitively determined. In addition, further studies on the characterisation of the early events in the rupture of the anterior attachment complex, eversion of the polar tube as well as the mechanism of host cell attachment and penetration are needed in order to clarify the function and assembly of this structure. The application of immunological and molecular techniques has resulted in the identification of three polar tube proteins referred to as PTP1, PTP2 and PTP3. The interactions of these identified proteins in the formation and function of the polar tube remain to be determined. Data suggest that PTP1 is an O-mannosylated glycoprotein, a post-translational modification that may be important for its function. With the availability of the Encephalitozoon cuniculi genome it is now possible to apply proteomic techniques to the characterisation of the components of the microsporidian spore and invasion organelle.International Journal for Parasitology 09/2005; 35(9):941-53. · 3.64 Impact Factor