Differences in colorectal cancer survival between European and US populations: the importance of sub-site and morphology.
ABSTRACT A previous study has shown a lower survival for colorectal cancer in Europe than in the United States of America (USA). It is of interest to examine the extent to which anatomical location and morphological type influence this difference in colorectal cancer survival. We analysed survival for 151,244 European and 53,884 US patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer aged 15-99 years during the period of 1985-1989, obtained from 40 cancer registries that contribute to the EUROCARE study from 17 countries, and nine Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) registries in the USA. Cases included in the analysis were first primary malignant tumours (ICD-O behaviour code 3 or higher). Relative survival was estimated to correct for competing causes of mortality. The Hakulinen-Tenkanen multiple regression approach was used to examine the prognostic impact of sub-site and ICD-O histology codes. Relative excess risks (RERs) derived from this approach estimate the extent to which the hazard of death differs from that in a reference region after adjustment for mortality in the general population. In order to explore geographical variation, we defined three groups of European registries within which survival rates were known to be broadly similar. The proportion of cases with unspecified sub-site was higher in Europe than the USA (10% versus 2%), but sub-site distributions were broadly similar in the two populations. With the exception of appendix, 5-year survival was 13-22% higher in the USA than in Europe for each anatomical sub-site. The proportion of non-microscopically-verified cases was higher in Europe than the USA (16 versus 3%). Adenocarcinomas arising in a polyp (ICD-O-2 8210, 8261, 8263) were more frequent in the USA than Europe (13 versus 2%). Five-year survival was higher in the USA than Europe for each morphological group, with the exception of non-microscopically-verified cases. When age, gender and sub-site were considered, RERs ranged from 1.52 to 2.40 for the European populations (with the USA as a reference). After inclusion of morphology codes, the range of RERs fell to between 1.28 and 1.86, mainly because of the high frequency of adenocarcinoma in polyps in the USA. This analysis suggests that the large survival advantage for colorectal cancer patients in the USA can only marginally be explained by differences in the distribution of sub-site and morphology. The main explanatory difference is the proportion of adenocarcinoma in polyps.
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ABSTRACT: Background:We report the findings of a feasibility study using information technology to search electronic primary care records and to identify patients with possible colorectal cancer.Methods:An algorithm to flag up patients meeting National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) urgent referral criteria for suspected colorectal cancer was developed and incorporated into clinical audit software. This periodically flagged up such patients aged 60 to 79 years. General practitioners (GPs) reviewed flagged-up patients and decided on further clinical management. We report the numbers of patients identified and the numbers that GPs judged to need further review, investigations or referral to secondary care and the final diagnoses.Results:Between January 2012 and March 2014, 19 580 records of patients aged 60 to 79 years were searched in 20 UK general practices, flagging up 809 patients who met urgent referral criteria. The majority of the patients had microcytic anaemia (236 (29%)) or rectal bleeding (205 (25%)). A total of 274 (34%) patients needed further clinical review of their records; 199 (73%) of these were invited for GP consultation, and 116 attended, of whom 42 were referred to secondary care. Colon cancer was diagnosed in 10 out of 809 (1.2%) flagged-up patients and polyps in a further 28 out of 809 (3.5%).Conclusions:It is technically possible to identify patients with colorectal cancer by searching electronic patient records.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 3 March 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.45 www.bjcancer.com.
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ABSTRACT: Post-treatment survival experience of early colon cancer (CC) patients is well described in the literature, which states that cure is probable for some patients. However, comparisons of treated patients' survival versus that expected from a matched general population (MGP) are limited. 32,745 patients from 25 randomized adjuvant trials conducted from 1977 to 2012 in 41 countries were pooled. Observed long-term survival of these patients was compared to expected survival matched on sex, age, country, and year, both overall and by stage (II, III), sex, treatment (surgery, 5FU, 5-FU+oxaliplatin), age (< 70, 70+), enrollment year (pre/post 2000), and recurrence (yes/no). Comparisons were made at randomization and repeated conditional on survival to 1, 2, 3, and 5 years. CC and MGP equivalence was tested, and observed Kaplan-Meier survival rates compared to expected MGP rates 3 years out from each landmark. Analyses were also repeated in patients without recurrence. Within most cohorts, long-term survival of CC patients remained statistically worse than the MGP, though conditional survival generally improved over time. Among those surviving 5 years, stage II, oxaliplatin-treated, elderly, and recurrence-free patients achieved subsequent 3-year survival rates within 5% of the MGP, with recurrence-free patients achieving equivalence. Conditional on survival to 5 years, long-term survival of most CC patients on clinical trials remains modestly poorer than a MGP, but achieves MGP levels in some subgroups. These findings emphasize the need for access to quality care and improved treatment and follow-up strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of mortality due to cancer (with over 50,000 deaths annually), representing 9% of all cancer deaths in the United States (1). In particular, the African-American CRC mortality rate is among the highest reported for any race/ethnic group. Meanwhile, the CRC mortality rate for Hispanics is 15-19% lower than that for non-Hispanic Caucasians (2). While factors such as obesity, age, and socio-economic status are known to associate with CRC mortality, do these and other potential factors correlate with CRC death in the same way across races? This research linked CRC mortality data obtained from the National Cancer Institute with data from the United States Census Bureau, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Solar Radiation Database to examine geographic and racial/ethnic differences, and develop a spatial regression model that adjusted for several factors that may attribute to health disparities among ethnic/racial groups. This analysis showed that sunlight, obesity, and socio-economic status were significant predictors of CRC mortality. The study is significant because it not only verifies known factors associated with the risk of CRC death but, more importantly, demonstrates how these factors vary within different racial groups. Accordingly, education on reducing risk factors for CRC should be directed at specific racial groups above and beyond creating a generalized education plan.Frontiers in Public Health 11/2014; 2:239. DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2014.00239