Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses is characterized by IFN-gamma and IL-8 production in bronchoalveolar lavage cells.
ABSTRACT In horses prone to developing recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), we tested the hypotheses that the cytokine profile in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells of affected horses would reflect a polarized Th-2 response; that cytokine and chemokine alterations would occur within 24 h of allergen exposure; and that allergen exposure would induce alterations in the expression of the transcription factor t-bet (t-box-expressed in T-cells). The expression levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-13, Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), t-bet, IL-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were measured in BAL cells obtained from control and RAO-susceptible horses during an asymptomatic phase and at 24 h and 5 weeks post-stabling and hay exposure. At each sampling time, BAL neutrophil percentages in the RAO-group exceeded controls. In the RAO-group, only IL-13 expression was decreased 2-fold during the asymptomatic phase. No differences in cytokine or chemokine expression were detected during the acute exposure phase. During the chronic phase, IFN-gamma and IL-8 expression levels were 2.5- and 3-fold greater, respectively, in the RAO-group. No other differences in gene expression were detected. We conclude that the cytokine profile of the airway cells does not reflect a polarized Th-2 response; that increases in IFN-gamma result from a t-bet independent pathway and that chemokines from epithelial or interstitial cells may contribute to early neutrophil influx.
Article: Epithelial expression of mRNA and protein for IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in endobronchial biopsies in horses with recurrent airway obstruction.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of bronchial epithelium to airway inflammation, with focus on mRNA and protein expression of cytokines of innate immunity IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha, in horses with Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO) during exacerbation and in remission. Despite marked clinical and physiologic alterations between exacerbation and after remission in the RAO horses no differences were detected in either cytokine mRNA or protein levels. Moreover, the expression of investigated cytokines in RAO horses on pasture did not differ from controls. In comparing real-time PCR analysis to results of immunohistochemistry only IL-10 mRNA and protein levels in RAO horses on pasture were significantly correlated (rs = 0.893, p = 0.007). Curiously, in controls examined on pasture the TNF-alpha protein level was positively correlated to IL-10 mRNA expression (rs = 0.967, p = 0.007) and negatively correlated to IL-6 mRNA expression (rs = -0.971, p = 0.001). Given the complementary relationship of assessing cytokines directly by immunohistochemistry, or indirectly by PCR to mRNA, the lack of significant changes in either mRNA or protein levels of IL-6, IL-10 or TNF-alpha mRNA in RAO horses in exacerbation suggests that these particular cytokines in bronchial tissue may not play a substantive role in the active inflammation of this disease. To support this contention further studies examining time dependency of expression of IL-6, IL-10 or TNF-alpha are needed, as is expansion of the range of cytokines to include other key regulators of airway inflammation.BMC Veterinary Research 02/2008; 4:8. · 2.00 Impact Factor
Article: Markers of respiratory inflammation in horses in relation to seasonal changes in air quality in a conventional racing stable.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Airborne factors in a conventionally managed racing stable and markers of pulmonary inflammation in the stabled horses were investigated on 3 occasions at 6-month intervals, including 2 winter periods and the intervening summer period. The stable measurements included inside and outside ambient temperature and relative humidity, levels of total and respirable dust, endotoxin, and 1,3-beta-glucan. Horses (n = 12) were examined in detail clinically as well as by endoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of BAL-cells for IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA. Indoor measurements showed low dust levels irrespective of season. Inhalable dust, as well as 1,3-beta-glucan, were higher during the winter stabling period, whereas endotoxin levels were higher during summer. Complete data from all sampling occasions to be used for further evaluation was obtained for only 8 of the horses. There was a trend for elevation of BAL neutrophils in the horses during winter stabling that coincided with a 3.7-fold increased expression of IL-6 mRNA in BAL cells (P = 0.014). Compared to summer sampling, IL-10 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in only 1 of the winter sampling occasions, implicating influence on immune regulation by factor/s apart from seasonal differences. Our findings suggest up-regulation of innate immunity in the airways of stabled horses; in particular involving IL-6 in association with mild elevations in respirable dust, 1,3-beta-glucan, and/or cold ambient air. However, given that this study was observational, other unmeasured environmental factors associated with winter stabling need to be considered.Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche vétérinaire 11/2008; 72(5):432-9. · 0.94 Impact Factor
Article: Comparison of genomic and proteomic data in recurrent airway obstruction affected horses using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis®.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is a severe chronic respiratory disease affecting horses worldwide, though mostly in the Northern hemisphere. Environmental as well as genetic factors strongly influence the course and prognosis of the disease. Research has been focused on characterization of immunologic factors contributing to inflammatory responses, on genetic linkage analysis, and, more recently, on proteomic analysis of airway secretions from affected horses. The goal of this study was to investigate the interactions between eight candidate genes previously identified in a genetic linkage study and proteins expressed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected from healthy and RAO-affected horses. The analysis was carried out with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® bioinformatics software. The gene with the greatest number of indirect interactions with the set of proteins identified is Interleukin 4 Receptor (IL-4R), whose protein has also been detected in BALF. Interleukin 21 receptor and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 also showed a large number of interactions with the group of detected proteins. Protein products of other genes like that of SOCS5, revealed direct interactions with the IL-4R protein. The interacting proteins NOD2, RPS6KA5 and FOXP3 found in several pathways are reported regulators of the NFκB pathway. The pathways generated with IL-4R highlight possible important intracellular signaling cascades implicating, for instance, NFκB. Furthermore, the proposed interaction between SOCS5 and IL-4R could explain how different genes can lead to identical clinical RAO phenotypes, as observed in two Swiss Warmblood half sibling families because these proteins interact upstream of an important cascade where they may act as a functional unit.BMC Veterinary Research 08/2011; 7:48. · 2.00 Impact Factor