Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses is characterized by IFN-gamma and IL-8 production in bronchoalveolar lavage cells.
ABSTRACT In horses prone to developing recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), we tested the hypotheses that the cytokine profile in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells of affected horses would reflect a polarized Th-2 response; that cytokine and chemokine alterations would occur within 24 h of allergen exposure; and that allergen exposure would induce alterations in the expression of the transcription factor t-bet (t-box-expressed in T-cells). The expression levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-13, Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), t-bet, IL-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were measured in BAL cells obtained from control and RAO-susceptible horses during an asymptomatic phase and at 24 h and 5 weeks post-stabling and hay exposure. At each sampling time, BAL neutrophil percentages in the RAO-group exceeded controls. In the RAO-group, only IL-13 expression was decreased 2-fold during the asymptomatic phase. No differences in cytokine or chemokine expression were detected during the acute exposure phase. During the chronic phase, IFN-gamma and IL-8 expression levels were 2.5- and 3-fold greater, respectively, in the RAO-group. No other differences in gene expression were detected. We conclude that the cytokine profile of the airway cells does not reflect a polarized Th-2 response; that increases in IFN-gamma result from a t-bet independent pathway and that chemokines from epithelial or interstitial cells may contribute to early neutrophil influx.
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ABSTRACT: An imbalance in various cytokine mRNA expression in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in horses suffering from recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) has been demonstrated; however, the natural variation of cytokine expression in healthy horses has yet to be described. The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify age-related differences in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in BAL and PBMC, 2) compare the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines between BAL and PBMC, 3) evaluate the relationship between BAL pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and BAL cytology. Cells from BAL and PBMC were collected from 66 horses and stimulated with LPS and PGN. The expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and TLR-4 were measured using qPCR. A significant age-related decrease for IL-1β and IL-8 in BAL, significant difference in cytokine mRNA expressions between BAL and PBMC and a significant relationship between TLR-4, IL-8 in LPS stimulated BAL samples and the percentage of neutrophils in BAL cytology were found. In conclusion, the natural age-related decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in BAL is new knowledge; this in contrast to other age-related findings associated with PBMC, where pro-inflammatory cytokines are known to increase with age in both horses and humans, the phenomenon known as ‘inflamm-aging’Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 04/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rhodococcus equi, a facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages, causes life-threatening pneumonia in foals and in people with underlying immune deficiencies. As a basis for this study, we hypothesized that macrophage lineage and age would affect intracellular survival of R. equi and cytokine induction after infection. Monocyte-derived and bronchoalveolar macrophages from 10 adult horses and from 10 foals (sampled at 1-3 days, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 5 months of age) were infected ex vivo with virulent R. equi. Intracellular R. equi were quantified and mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IL-18, IFN-γ, and TNF-α was measured. Intracellular replication of R. equi was significantly (P < 0.001) greater in bronchoalveolar than in monocyte-derived macrophages, regardless of age. Regardless of the macrophage lineage, replication of R. equi was significantly (P = 0.002) higher in 3-month-old foals than in 3-day old foals, 2-week-old foals, 1-month-old foals, and adult horses. Expression of IL-4 mRNA was significantly higher in monocyte-derived macrophages whereas expression of IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α was significantly higher in bronchoalveolar macrophages. Induction of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12 p40, and IL-8 mRNA in bronchoalveolar macrophages of 1-3-day old foals was significantly higher than in older foals or adult horses. Preferential intracellular survival of R. equi in bronchoalveolar macrophages of juvenile horses may play a role in the pulmonary tropism of the pathogen and in the window of age susceptibility to infection.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 01/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si ratones expuestos a esporas de Aspergillus fumigatus desarrollan una inflamación alérgica de las vías respiratorias similar a la observada en equinos con Obstrucción Recurrente de las Vías Aéreas (ORVA). Para esto se utilizaron ratones Rockefeller (RK) de 2, 5, 6 y 8 meses respectivamente, los cuales se mantuvieron por 16 días en jaulas que contenían heno contaminado con A. fumigatus. Posterior a la exposición, los animales fueron sangrados y sacrificados para la obtención de suero sanguíneo, lavado broncoalveolar (LBA) y muestras de tejido pulmonar. Además, se midieron los niveles de anticuerpos específicos para A. fumigatus a través de un ELISA indirecto. Los resultados mostraron que la inhalación de esporas de A. fumigatus en ratones induce una respuesta alérgica inflamatoria en pulmones similar a lo observado en ORVA equino, con un aumento del porcentaje de neutrófilos en el LBA y cambios histológicos pulmonares característicos de una hipersensibilidad bronquial. Asimismo, se observó un aumento de los niveles de inmunoglubulinas IgE, IgG1 e IgG2a específicas para este hongo en fluidos bronquiales. Además, los animales remitieron el estrés respiratorio cuando fueron expuestos en un ambiente de remisión. Se puede concluir que la simple exposición de esporas de A. fumugatus produce una condición alérgica similar al ORVA en equinos. Por lo tanto, este modelo experimental puede ser de utilidad para el estudio de los mecanismos inmunológicos, y probar nuevas opciones terapéuticas para esta enfermedad respiratoria de los caballos.Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 12/2010; 43(2):163-171. · 0.35 Impact Factor