Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses is characterized by IFN-gamma and IL-8 production in bronchoalveolar lavage cells.
ABSTRACT In horses prone to developing recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), we tested the hypotheses that the cytokine profile in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells of affected horses would reflect a polarized Th-2 response; that cytokine and chemokine alterations would occur within 24 h of allergen exposure; and that allergen exposure would induce alterations in the expression of the transcription factor t-bet (t-box-expressed in T-cells). The expression levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-13, Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), t-bet, IL-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were measured in BAL cells obtained from control and RAO-susceptible horses during an asymptomatic phase and at 24 h and 5 weeks post-stabling and hay exposure. At each sampling time, BAL neutrophil percentages in the RAO-group exceeded controls. In the RAO-group, only IL-13 expression was decreased 2-fold during the asymptomatic phase. No differences in cytokine or chemokine expression were detected during the acute exposure phase. During the chronic phase, IFN-gamma and IL-8 expression levels were 2.5- and 3-fold greater, respectively, in the RAO-group. No other differences in gene expression were detected. We conclude that the cytokine profile of the airway cells does not reflect a polarized Th-2 response; that increases in IFN-gamma result from a t-bet independent pathway and that chemokines from epithelial or interstitial cells may contribute to early neutrophil influx.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess clinical signs and altered pulmonary cell expression of cytokines related to eosinophil kinetics in horses with pulmonary eosinophilia. Pulmonary eosinophilia was detected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in a group of standardbreds in training. Horses had detailed clinical examination, bronchoscopy, endobronchial biopsy and BAL on three occasions at approximately 6 month intervals. During the second sampling period BAL eosinophils were significantly elevated (p>0.010), with five horses having from 5% to 37% eosinophils in BAL. Neither detailed clinical examination parameters nor gene expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA (real-time-PCR) were associated with BAL eosinophilia. Pulmonary eosinophilia abated without treatment apart from deworming. It appears that pronounced lung eosinophilia in horses can be transient, abate without specific treatment, and in this instance, lack correlation to upregulation of expression of either IL-4 or IL-5.Research in Veterinary Science 08/2008; 85(1):52-5. DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.09.015 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate mRNA levels of cytokines in bronchial epithelium in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) during acute crisis and remission. Additionally, cytokine mRNA levels in endobronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells were compared. Seven RAO horses were examined while in respiratory crisis following provocation and again while in remission after 2 months on pasture, during which time six healthy horses on pasture were also examined. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to assess mRNA expression for cytokines IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17 and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) in endobronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage. Expression of IL-8 mRNA was significantly upregulated during crisis in both endobronchial biopsies and BAL cells (p=0.036), while there was a similar trend for upregulation of IL-10 mRNA only in BAL cells that approached significance (p=0.059). Moreover, during crisis the expression of IL-8 mRNA in BAL cells was positively correlated to relative IL-6 mRNA expression (r(s)=0.971, p=0.001) and bronchial epithelial expression of IL-10 and TGF-beta1 mRNA were positively correlated (r(s)=0.943, p=0.005). In comparing the relationship of mRNA expression in BAL to biopsy in individual RAO horses, there was a positive correlation with IL-6 to IL-8 mRNA expression in BAL during respiratory crisis (r(s)=0.971, p=0.001) that also correlated positively with IL-8 expression in biopsies on pasture (r(s)=0.986, p<0.0001 for both). Regarding RAO horses at pasture versus controls neither the cytokine mRNA levels in endobronchial biopsy nor in BAL cells differed significantly. These results further support previous findings that IL-8 mRNA in both BAL cells and bronchial epithelium is upregulated in RAO horses during crisis. However, apart from IL-8, it appears that expression of other cytokines, including IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-beta1 in bronchial epithelium does not necessarily mirror cytokine expression in BAL cells in individual horses with RAO. Accordingly, examination of markers of inflammation in endobronchial tissue provides complementary but not necessarily identical information to that obtained in BAL cells. Given the potential for repeated sampling over time bronchial biopsy can serve as an invaluable additional tool for investigation of time-dependent changes in inflammatory process in this animal model of asthma.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 04/2008; 122(3-4):256-64. DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.12.001 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: REASONS FOR STUDY: Equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is probably dependent on a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors and shares many characteristic features with human asthma. Interleukin 4 receptor a chain (IL4RA) is a candidate gene because of its role in the development of human asthma, confirmation of this association is therefore required. The equine BAC clone containing the IL4RA gene was localised to ECA13q13 by the FISH method. Microsatellite markers in this region were investigated for possible association and linkage with RAO in 2 large Warmblood halfsib families. Based on a history of clinical signs (coughing, nasal discharge, abnormal breathing and poor performance), horses were classified in a horse owner assessed respiratory signs index (HOARSI 1-4: from healthy, mild, moderate to severe signs). Four microsatellite markers (AHT133, LEX041, VHL47, ASB037) were analysed in the offspring of Sire 1 (48 unaffected HOARSI 1 vs. 59 affected HOARSI 2-4) and Sire 2 (35 HOARSI 1 vs. 50 HOARSI 2-4), age 07 years. For both sires haplotypes could be established in the order AHT133-LEXO47-VHL47-ASB37. The distances in this order were estimated to be 2.9, 0.9 and 2.3 centiMorgans, respectively. Haplotype association with mild to severe clinical signs of chronic lower airway disease (HOARSI 2-4) was significant in the offspring of Sire 1 (P = 0.026) but not significant for the offspring of Sire 2 (P = 0.32). Linkage analysis showed the ECA13q13 region containing IL4RA to be linked to equine chronic lower airway disease in one family (P<0.01), but not in the second family. This supports a genetic background for equine RAO and indicates that IL4RA is a candidate gene with possible locus heterogeneity for this disease. Identification of major genes for RAO may provide a basis for breeding and individual prevention for this important disease.Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2007; 39(3):236-41. DOI:10.2746/042516407X171110 · 2.37 Impact Factor