Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses is characterized by IFN-gamma and IL-8 production in bronchoalveolar lavage cells.
ABSTRACT In horses prone to developing recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), we tested the hypotheses that the cytokine profile in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells of affected horses would reflect a polarized Th-2 response; that cytokine and chemokine alterations would occur within 24 h of allergen exposure; and that allergen exposure would induce alterations in the expression of the transcription factor t-bet (t-box-expressed in T-cells). The expression levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-13, Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), t-bet, IL-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were measured in BAL cells obtained from control and RAO-susceptible horses during an asymptomatic phase and at 24 h and 5 weeks post-stabling and hay exposure. At each sampling time, BAL neutrophil percentages in the RAO-group exceeded controls. In the RAO-group, only IL-13 expression was decreased 2-fold during the asymptomatic phase. No differences in cytokine or chemokine expression were detected during the acute exposure phase. During the chronic phase, IFN-gamma and IL-8 expression levels were 2.5- and 3-fold greater, respectively, in the RAO-group. No other differences in gene expression were detected. We conclude that the cytokine profile of the airway cells does not reflect a polarized Th-2 response; that increases in IFN-gamma result from a t-bet independent pathway and that chemokines from epithelial or interstitial cells may contribute to early neutrophil influx.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Equine neonates have reduced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses compared to adult horses after administration of killed vaccines. As a basis for this study, we hypothesized that newborn foals can mount strong immune responses after vaccination with live Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Healthy 4-day-old foals (n=7), 4-month-old foals (n=7) and adult horses (n=6) were vaccinated once with live M. bovis BCG. Age-matched animals (n=5 per group) were used as unvaccinated controls. Relative vaccine-specific immunoglobulin concentrations and whole blood mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 were measured prior to and 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after vaccination. Eight weeks after vaccination, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were assessed by measuring the increase in double skin thickness after intradermal injection of purified protein derivative. Both groups of foals and adult horses responded with a significant increase in vaccine-specific total IgG, IgGa, IgGc, IgG(T), and IgM concentrations. In contrast, only adult horses mounted significant IgGb responses. Vaccine-specific concentrations of total IgG and IgGa were significantly higher in adult horses than in 4-day-old foals whereas IgGc responses were significantly higher in 4-day-old foals than in the other two age groups. Adult horses had significantly higher basal IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA expression than both groups of foals but vaccination with M. bovis BCG did not significantly increase expression of these cytokines, regardless of age group. Immunized horses had significantly higher DTH responses than age-matched unvaccinated controls. DTH responses were significantly greater in both groups of vaccinated foals than in vaccinated adult horses. Despite a naïve immune system, newborn foals have the ability to mount robust antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to M. bovis BCG.Vaccine 01/2014; · 3.77 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic Th2-driven airway inflammation with excessive mucus production occurs in asthma. The regulation of FUCA1 and FUCA2 gene expression and enzyme activity in response to asthma-associated Th2 cytokines and, for contrast, Th1 cytokine IFN-γ, were investigated in a human airway cell line. BEAS-2B cells were supplemented with Th2-derived cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, IL-5) or/and IFN-γ. RNA and cell supernatants from stimulated and unstimulated cells were collected over a period of 3 h. Alpha-L-fucosidase A1 and A2 gene expression were assessed using real time RT-PCR, while enzymatic activities were measured using a fluorescent assay. To characterise α-L-fucosidase A2, CHO-K1 and BEAS-2B cell lines were transiently transfected, the FUCA2 gene was overexpressed, and the protein was immunoprecipitated. The transcription of FUCA1 was upregulated (p < 0.01) in response to IFN-γ, suggesting that FUCA1 transcription and fucosidase activity are regulated in a Th1-dependent manner. The gene expression was the highest for 30 min after IFN-γ stimulation (>twofold induction), whereas secreted enzyme activity in BEAS-2B cells was significantly increased 1 h after IFN-γ addition. IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 had no effect on FUCA1 and FUCA2 expression and activity. The IFN-γ-induced increase in expression and activity was repressed by the presence of the Th2 cytokine IL-5. Enzymatically active α-L-fucosidase 2 was immunoprecipitated from BEAS-2B cells, with highest activity at pH 4.9. IL-13, IL-4 and IL-5 have no effect on the expression of FUCA1 and FUCA2, but its expression is upregulated by IFN-γ, a Th1 cytokine. Active α-L-fucosidase 2 was overexpressed in BEAS-2B cells.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 01/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An imbalance in various cytokine mRNA expression in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in horses suffering from recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) has been demonstrated; however, the natural variation of cytokine expression in healthy horses has yet to be described. The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify age-related differences in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in BAL and PBMC, 2) compare the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines between BAL and PBMC, 3) evaluate the relationship between BAL pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and BAL cytology. Cells from BAL and PBMC were collected from 66 horses and stimulated with LPS and PGN. The expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and TLR-4 were measured using qPCR. A significant age-related decrease for IL-1β and IL-8 in BAL, significant difference in cytokine mRNA expressions between BAL and PBMC and a significant relationship between TLR-4, IL-8 in LPS stimulated BAL samples and the percentage of neutrophils in BAL cytology were found. In conclusion, the natural age-related decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in BAL is new knowledge; this in contrast to other age-related findings associated with PBMC, where pro-inflammatory cytokines are known to increase with age in both horses and humans, the phenomenon known as ‘inflamm-aging’Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 01/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor