[Dopamine receptors--structure, characterization and function].
ABSTRACT Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter/neuromodulator that plays various functions within the body. In the central nervous system, DA is involved in the control of locomotion, cognition, emotion, neuroendocrine secretion and function of retinal cells. In the periphery, DA participates in the regulation of homeostasis, vascular tone and hormone secretion. The diverse physiological functions of DA are mediated by at least five distinct membrane bound receptors, i.e. D1 and D5--members of D1 family, and D2, D3, D4--members of D2 family of DA receptors. All DA receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. This survey summarizes current knowledge on the molecular and pharmacological characterization of DA receptors, their role in the regulation of various processes in an organism, and involvement in the therapy of several disorders, in particular in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and hypertension.