Laboratory evaluation of toxicity of 16 insect repellents in aerosol sprays to adult mosquitoes

United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, PO Box 14565, Gainesville, FL 32604, USA.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association (Impact Factor: 0.83). 10/2003; 19(3):271-4.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sixteen commercial insect repellents (6 botanical and 10 synthetic organic products) in spray formulations were evaluated in the laboratory for adult knockdown (KD) and mortality of laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. All tested products produced significant posttreatment KD and 24 h mortality of all 3 mosquito species. In our study, the synthetic organic repellents induced faster KD and KD of higher magnitude in adult mosquitoes than the botanical product repellents except geraniol-based MosquitoSafe. All tested formulations except 2 botanical repellent products caused 100% 24 h mortality of Ae. aegypti and all but 1 caused 100% 24 h mortality of Ae. albolpictus and An. quadrimaculatus.

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Available from: Rui-De Xue, Jan 13, 2014
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    • "Moreover, some repellents have been reported to have toxic properties. Xue et al. (2003) found that aerosol applications of Skin-So-SoftH, containing 0.1% citronella, in laboratory wind tunnel studies produced 90% mortality of adult Ae. aegypti (L.) with 100% mortality of Ae. albopictus and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say adults at 24 h posttreatment. In that same study these authors also similarly exposed these same species to NatrapelH, containing 10% citronella, where complete kill occurred at 24 h. "
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    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of several commercially available products containing plant essential oils against caged female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus was studied. Products operationally applied via an automatic-timed insecticide application system (MistAway) at maximum label rates were EcoExempt MC (9.0 ml/liter, rosemary oil [18% AI], cinnamon oil [2% AI], lemongrass oil [2% AI], plus 78% "other ingredients" in wintergreen oil). Misting System Concentrate (4 ml/liter, oil of Juniperus virginiana [85% AI]), Mosquito Barrier (31.1 ml/liter, garlic oil [99.3% AI], and citric acid [0.5% AI]), and No-See-Um Organic Repellent (99.5 ml/liter, lemongrass [4% AI], citronella [3% AI], castor oil [3% AI], sodium laurate [3%], and garlic oil [1% AI] in an 86% [AI] mixture of wintergreen oil, lecithin, and water). All products were compared with a commercial formulation of synergized pyrethrins, Riptide (9.0 ml/liter, pyrethrins [5% AI], piperonyl butoxide [25% AI]), as a standard. Mortality was the greatest for Riptide to both mosquito species with effectiveness influenced by distance from the nozzle (ranging from > 80% at 3 m to > 10% at 20 m). The essential oil products resulted in < 10% mortality for each species regardless of application exposure distance with the exception of EcoExempt, which gave approximately 13% mortality of caged female Ae. albopictus 6 m from the nozzles.
    Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 09/2011; 27(3):252-5. DOI:10.2987/10-6096.1 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    • "quinquefasciatus would be 1.378%, 0.414%, 0.145%, and 0.333%, respectively. Because any commercially available DEET insect repellent has a minimum percentage of active ingredient of 7.5% (up to 30%), which is much higher than the LD 95 values of DEET as described above, it is not surprising that Xue et al. (2003) found that commercially available insect repellents in spray formulations produced significant adult knockdown (KD) and 24-h mortality against adult mosquitoes. Recently , the lethal effects of 3 synthetic repellents (DEET, IR3535, and KBR3023) have been evaluated by filter paper tests to assess the knockdown effect and mortality induced by each repellent to Ae. aegypti (Licciardi et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The relative toxicities of 8 repellents (DMP, Rutgers 612, DEET, IR3535, Picardin, PMD, AI3-35765, and AI3-37220) were evaluated by topical application against females of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and An. albimanus. Based on 24-h LD50 values, the most toxic repellent against all 4 mosquito species was AI3-37220, with values of 0.25, 0.20, 0.16, and 0.11 microg/mg for the listed 4 mosquito species, respectively. The least toxic of the 8 repellents tested was DMP, with LD50 values of 5.40, 4.72, 2.50, and 1.83 microg/mg, respectively. Based on the 24-h LD50 values, An. albimanus was the most susceptible species. The findings of the study reported herein provide a comprehensive examination of the toxicities of 4 currently used, 2 formerly used, and 2 experimental repellents against 4 mosquito species.
    Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 07/2009; 25(2):168-73. DOI:10.2987/08-5837.1 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    • "are relatively short, one could argue that the chemical lacks biological activity in any regard against malaria vectors. But casual observations in laboratory repellent bioassays suggest that exposure to DEET induces morbidity ( " tiredness " ; unresponsiveness) and mortality in A. albimanus and A. quadrimaculatus Say test populations (Xue et al., 2003). This apparent biocidal eVect presents a conceptual alternative to repellency as a basis for characterizing the biological activity of DEET. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study determined the effects of contact with DEET on guinea pig skin on mortality, probing time, blood feeding rate, engorgement time, and fecundity responses in female Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Exposure, in this manner, to 10% DEET (in ethanol) for 5 min, resulted in 98% mortality in mosquitoes after 24h. The median probing time (PT(50)) required by females, when exposed to 0.1%, 1.0%, and 10% DEET, was significantly (P<0.0001) longer (12.5, 12.1, and 19.1s, respectively) than the 6.8s required by females to probe ethanol-treated skin (control). Similarly, mean blood feeding rates in populations of females exposed to 1.0% DEET for < or = 5 min (14.4%) was 6x lower (P<0.001) (85.5%) than in females exposed to ethanol-treated skin, whereas the mean engorgement time on skin treated with 1.0% DEET (66.3s) was significantly shorter (P<0.0001) than for females feeding on the control guinea pigs (105.9s). The mean number of mature oöcytes per female (fecundity) in treatment (1.0% DEET) and control mosquitoes was not significantly different. The responses to DEET observed in this study suggest that repeated exposure of female A. quadrimaculatus populations to this repellent, in laboratory bioassays, could result in confounding of toxicant and repellent effects and inaccurate estimates of DEET repellency.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2007; 116(3):201-4. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2006.12.011 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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