Position of Pro and Ser near Glu 7.32 in the Extracellular Loop 3 of Mammalian and Nonmammalian Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptors Is a Critical Determinant for Differential Ligand Selectivity for Mammalian GnRH and Chicken GnRH-II
A Glu/Asp7.32 residue in the extracellular loop 3 of the mammalian GnRH receptor (GnRHR) is known to interact with Arg8 of mammalian GnRH (mGnRH), which may confer preferential ligand selectivity for mGnRH than for chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II). However, some nonmammalian GnRHRs also have the Glu/Asp residue at the same position, yet respond better to cGnRH-II than mGnRH. Amino acids flanking Glu/Asp7.32 are differentially arranged such that mammalian and nonmammalian GnRHRs have an S-E/D-P motif and P-X-S/Y motif, respectively. We presumed the position of Ser7.31 or Pro7.33 of rat GnRHR as a potential determinant for ligand selectivity. Either placing Pro before Glu7.32 or placing Ser after Glu7.32 significantly decreased the sensitivity and/or efficacy for mGnRH, but slightly increased that for cGnRH-II in several mutant receptors. Among them, those with a PEV, PES, or SES motif exhibited a marked decrease in sensitivity for mGnRH such that cGnRH-II had a higher potency than mGnRH, showing a reversed preferential ligand selectivity. Chimeric mGnRHs in which positions 5, 7, and/or 8 were replaced by those of cGnRH-II revealed a greater ability to activate these mutant receptors than mGnRH, whereas they were less potent to activate wild-type rat GnRHR than mGnRH. Interestingly, a mutant bullfrog type I receptor with the SEP motif exhibited an increased sensitivity for mGnRH but a decreased sensitivity for cGnRH-II. These results indicate that the position of Pro and Ser near Glu7.32 in the extracellular loop 3 is critical for the differential ligand selectivity between mammalian and nonmammalian GnRHRs.
"Duplicated paralogs of peptides and receptors have undergone sequence modifications during evolution, leading to diversification and specification of ligand-receptor pairs. Specific diversification of peptides, in other words, conservation within orthologs but variation among paralogs could confer selective interaction of a peptide with the cognate receptor, allowing discrimination of paralogous receptors , , , . Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that the K16M/I17K18 motif in GCRP is conserved amongst vertebrates but shows variation from the corresponding residues in other peptides. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glucagon (GCG) peptide family consists of GCG, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), and GLP2, which are derived from a common GCG precursor, and the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). These peptides interact with cognate receptors, GCGR, GLP1R, GLP2R, and GIPR, which belong to the secretin-like G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. We used bioinformatics to identify genes encoding a novel GCG-related peptide (GCRP) and its cognate receptor, GCRPR. The GCRP and GCRPR genes were found in representative tetrapod taxa such as anole lizard, chicken, and Xenopus, and in teleosts including medaka, fugu, tetraodon, and stickleback. However, they were not present in mammals and zebrafish. Phylogenetic and genome synteny analyses showed that GCRP emerged through two rounds of whole genome duplication (2R) during early vertebrate evolution. GCRPR appears to have arisen by local tandem gene duplications from a common ancestor of GCRPR, GCGR, and GLP2R after 2R. Biochemical ligand-receptor interaction analyses revealed that GCRP had the highest affinity for GCRPR in comparison to other GCGR family members. Stimulation of chicken, Xenopus, and medaka GCRPRs activated Gαs-mediated signaling. In contrast to chicken and Xenopus GCRPRs, medaka GCRPR also induced Gαq/11-mediated signaling. Chimeric peptides and receptors showed that the K(16)M(17)K(18) and G(16)Q(17)A(18) motifs in GCRP and GLP1, respectively, may at least in part contribute to specific recognition of their cognate receptors through interaction with the receptor core domain. In conclusion, we present novel data demonstrating that GCRP and GCRPR evolved through gene/genome duplications followed by specific modifications that conferred selective recognition to this ligand-receptor pair.
PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e65420. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0065420 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Representative sequences of non-mammalian type I GnRH-Rs (mouse and human) and amphibian type I, II, and III GnRH-Rs (bullfrog) were compared with the three identified GnRH receptors in the lamprey (Flanagan et al., 1994, 1999; Zhou et al., 1994, 1995; Arora et al., 1995, 1997; Davidson et al., 1996; Ballesteros et al., 1998; Myburgh et al., 1998; Chung et al., 1999; Fromme et al., 2001; Kitanovic et al., 2001; Millar et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2004; Li et al., 2005; Oh et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This minireview provides the current status on gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-R) in vertebrates, from the perspective of a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey, and provides an evolutionary scheme based on the recent advance of whole genome sequencing. In addition, we provide a perspective on the functional divergence and evolution of the receptors. In this review we use the phylogenetic classification of vertebrate GnRH receptors that groups them into three clusters: type I (mammalian and non-mammalian), type II, and type III GnRH receptors. New findings show that the sea lamprey has two type III-like GnRH receptors and an ancestral type GnRH receptor that is more closely related to the type II-like receptors. These two novel GnRH receptors along with lGnRH-R-1 share similar structural features and amino acid motifs common to other known gnathostome type II/III receptors. Recent data analyses of the lamprey genome provide strong evidence that two whole rounds of genome duplication (2R) occurred prior to the gnathostome-agnathan split. Based on our current knowledge, it is proposed that lGnRH-R-1 evolved from an ancestor of the type II receptor following a vertebrate-shared genome duplication and that the two type III receptors resulted from a duplication within lamprey of a gene derived from a lineage shared by many vertebrates.
Frontiers in Endocrinology 11/2012; 3:140. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2012.00140
"Thus, amino acid sequence comparison of the peptide and receptor with their orthologs and paralogs, along with mutational mapping approaches, are useful tools helping to determine specific residues in the peptide ligands and receptors that are essential for maintaining selective ligand-receptor interaction. Indeed, ligand binding domains identified in mammalian receptors are highly conserved in orthologous non-mammalian receptors, indicating that there is high evolutionary selection pressure to maintain selectivity for their ligands (Acharjee et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2004; Li et al., 2005). Recently, we reported that evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues in GLP-1 and core domains of the GLP1R confer selective ligand-receptor interaction and receptor activation (Moon et al., 2010, 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a major player in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. It acts on pancreatic beta cells to stimulate insulin secretion and on the brain to inhibit appetite. Thus, it may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Despite the physiological and clinical importance of GLP-1, molecular interaction with the GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R) is not well understood. Particularly, the specific amino acid residues within the transmembrane helices and extracellular loops of the receptor that may confer ligand-induced receptor activation have been poorly investigated. Amino acid sequence comparisons of GLP-1 and GLP1R with their orthologs and paralogs in vertebrates, combined with biochemical approaches, are useful to determine which amino acid residues in the peptide and the receptor confer selective ligand-receptor interaction. This article reviews how the molecular evolution of GLP-1 and GLP1R contributes to the selective interaction between this ligand-receptor pair, providing critical clues for the development of potent agonists for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and obesity.
Frontiers in Endocrinology 11/2012; 3:141. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2012.00141
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