Position of Pro and Ser near Glu7.32 in the extracellular loop 3 of mammalian and nonmammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors is a critical determinant for differential ligand selectivity for mammalian GnRH and chicken GnRH-II.
ABSTRACT A Glu/Asp7.32 residue in the extracellular loop 3 of the mammalian GnRH receptor (GnRHR) is known to interact with Arg8 of mammalian GnRH (mGnRH), which may confer preferential ligand selectivity for mGnRH than for chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II). However, some nonmammalian GnRHRs also have the Glu/Asp residue at the same position, yet respond better to cGnRH-II than mGnRH. Amino acids flanking Glu/Asp7.32 are differentially arranged such that mammalian and nonmammalian GnRHRs have an S-E/D-P motif and P-X-S/Y motif, respectively. We presumed the position of Ser7.31 or Pro7.33 of rat GnRHR as a potential determinant for ligand selectivity. Either placing Pro before Glu7.32 or placing Ser after Glu7.32 significantly decreased the sensitivity and/or efficacy for mGnRH, but slightly increased that for cGnRH-II in several mutant receptors. Among them, those with a PEV, PES, or SES motif exhibited a marked decrease in sensitivity for mGnRH such that cGnRH-II had a higher potency than mGnRH, showing a reversed preferential ligand selectivity. Chimeric mGnRHs in which positions 5, 7, and/or 8 were replaced by those of cGnRH-II revealed a greater ability to activate these mutant receptors than mGnRH, whereas they were less potent to activate wild-type rat GnRHR than mGnRH. Interestingly, a mutant bullfrog type I receptor with the SEP motif exhibited an increased sensitivity for mGnRH but a decreased sensitivity for cGnRH-II. These results indicate that the position of Pro and Ser near Glu7.32 in the extracellular loop 3 is critical for the differential ligand selectivity between mammalian and nonmammalian GnRHRs.
- SourceAvailable from: Jae Young Seong[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) play an important role in vertebrate reproduction. Although many GnRHR genes have been identified in a large variety of vertebrate species, the evolutionary history of GnRHR in vertebrates is unclear. To trace the evolutionary origin of GnRHR we examined the conserved synteny of chromosomes harboring GnRHR genes and matched the genes to linkage groups of reconstructed vertebrate ancestor chromosomes. Consistent with the phylogenetic tree, three pairs of GnRHR subtypes were identified in three paralogous linkage groups, indicating that an ancestral pair emerged through local duplication before two rounds of whole genome duplication (2R). The 2R then led to the generation of six subtypes of GnRHR. Some subtypes were lost during vertebrate evolution after the divergence of teleosts and tetrapods. One subtype includes mammalian GnRHR and a coelacanth GnRHR that showed the greatest response to GnRH1 among the three types of GnRH. This study provides new insight into the evolutionary relationship of vertebrate GnRHRs.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e87901. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Elucidating the mechanisms underlying coevolution of ligands and receptors is an important challenge in molecular evolutionary biology. Peptide hormones and their receptors are excellent models for such efforts, given the relative ease of examining evolutionary changes in genes encoding for both molecules. Most vertebrates possess multiple genes for both the decapeptide gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and for the GnRH receptor. The evolutionary history of the receptor family, including ancestral copy number and timing of duplications and deletions, has been the subject of controversy.ResultsWe report here for the first time sequences of three distinct GnRH receptor genes in salamanders (axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum), which are orthologous to three GnRH receptors from ranid frogs. To understand the origin of these genes within the larger evolutionary context of the gene family, we performed phylogenetic analyses and probabilistic protein homology searches of GnRH receptor genes in vertebrates and their near relatives. Our analyses revealed four points that alter previous views about the evolution of the GnRH receptor gene family. First, the ¿mammalian¿ pituitary type GnRH receptor, which is the sole GnRH receptor in humans and previously presumed to be highly derived because it lacks the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain typical of most G-protein coupled receptors, is actually an ancient gene that originated in the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Second, unlike previous studies, we classify vertebrate GnRH receptors into five subfamilies. Third, the order of subfamily origins is the inverse of previous proposed models. Fourth, the number of GnRH receptor genes has been dynamic in vertebrates and their ancestors, with multiple duplications and losses.Conclusion Our results provide a novel evolutionary framework for generating hypotheses concerning the functional importance of structural characteristics of vertebrate GnRH receptors. We show that five subfamilies of vertebrate GnRH receptors evolved early in the vertebrate phylogeny, followed by several independent instances of gene loss. Chief among cases of gene loss are humans, best described as degenerate with respect to GnRH receptors because we retain only a single, ancient gene.BMC Evolutionary Biology 10/2014; 14(1):215. · 3.29 Impact Factor
Article: Evolution of GLP1 and GLP1 receptor.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP1) is an intestinal incretin that regulates glucose homeostasis through stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells and inhibits appetite by acting on the brain. Thus, it is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Studies using synteny and reconstructed ancestral chromosomes suggest that families for GLP1 and its receptor GLP1R have emerged through two rounds (2R) of whole genome duplication and local gene duplications before and after 2R. Exon duplications have also contributed to expansion of the peptide family members. Specific changes in the amino acid sequence following exon/gene/genome duplications have established distinct yet related peptide and receptor families. These specific changes also confer selective interactions between GLP1 and GLP1R. In this review, we present a possible macro- (genome level) and micro- (gene/exon level) evolution mechanisms of GLP1 and GLP1R, which allows them to acquire selective interactions between this ligand-receptor pair. This information may provide critical insight for the development of potent therapeutic agents targeting GLP1R.Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 03/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor