Disruption of vascular endothelial homeostasis by tobacco smoke: impact on atherosclerosis.
ABSTRACT The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that by 2020 tobacco will become the largest single health problem worldwide and will cause an estimated 8.4 million deaths annually (http://www5.who.int/tobacco/). Although the impact of smoking on human health is well defined from the medical point of view, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms by which tobacco smoke mediates its disastrous effects. Here, we demonstrate that tobacco smoke dramatically changes vascular endothelial cell and tissue morphology, leading to a loss of endothelial barrier function within minutes. Long-term exposure of endothelial cells to tobacco smoke extracts induces necrosis that may trigger a pro-inflammatory status of the vessel wall. Pre-incubation of the extracts without cells for 6 h at 37 degrees C led to a complete loss of activity. Further, the endothelium could be rescued by changing to fresh medium even at times when the extracts had lost their activity. Finally, we show that N-acetyl cysteine and statins inhibit the adverse tobacco smoke effects.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The goal of the present study was to determine whether treatment with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces cell loss, cellular senescence, and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in primary human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Primary cultured human RPE cells were exposed to 2, 4, 8, and 12% of CSE concentration for 24 hours. Cell loss was detected by cell viability assay. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by loss of cis-parinaric acid (PNA) fluorescence. Senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal) activity was detected by histochemical staining. Expression of apolipoprotein J (Apo J), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), fibronectin, and laminin were examined by real-time PCR, western blot, or ELISA experiments. The results showed that exposure of cells to 12% of CSE concentration induced cell death, while treatment of cells with 2, 4, and 8% CSE increased lipid peroxidation. Exposure to 8% of CSE markedly increased the number of SA-ß-Gal positive cells to up to 82%, and the mRNA expression of Apo J, CTGF, and fibronectin by approximately 3-4 fold. Treatment with 8% of CSE also increased the protein expression of Apo J and CTGF and the secretion of fibronectin and laminin. Thus, treatment with CSE can induce cell loss, senescent changes, and ECM synthesis in primary human RPE cells. It may be speculated that cigarette smoke could be involved in cellular events in RPE cells as seen in age-related macular degeneration.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e48501. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Proteasome inhibition augments cigarette smoke-induced GM-CSF expression in trophoblast cells via the epidermal growth factor receptor.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Maternal cigarette smoking has adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is an essential cytokine for a normal pregnancy. We investigated the impact of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on GM-CSF expression in human cytotrophoblast cells and suggested a cellular mechanism underlying the CSE-induced GM-CSF expression. An immortalized normal human trophoblast cell line (B6Tert-1) was treated with CSE. The viability and proliferation of the CSE-treated B6Tert-1 cells were evaluated, and the expression of GM-CSF in these cells was quantified at the mRNA and the protein levels by means of reverse-transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR); and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Human trophoblast cells treated with CSE had an increased expression of GM-CSF at both the mRNA and the protein levels. The CSE-induced GM-CSF expression was synergistically enhanced by the addition of the proteasome inhibitor MG-132, but inhibited by AG-1478, an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase. Furthermore, CSE treatment increased the phosphorylation of the extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2) in the trophoblast cells. The expression of other growth factors such as heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also evaluated. Our data suggested that cigarette smoking and proteasome inhibition synergistically up-regulate GM-CSF cytokine expression by activating the EGFR signaling pathway.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43042. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: MicroRNAs in Vascular Biology.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vascular inflammation is an important component of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aneurysms. All vascular cells, including endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and infiltrating cells, such as macrophages, orchestrate a series of pathological events. Despite dramatic improvements in the treatment of atherosclerosis, the molecular basis of vascular inflammation is not well understood. In the last decade, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed as novel regulators of vascular inflammation. Each miRNAs suppresses a set of genes, forming complex regulatory network. This paper provides an overview of current advances that have been made in revealing the roles of miRNAs during vascular inflammation. Recent studies show that miRNAs not only exist inside cells but also circulate in blood. These circulating miRNAs are useful biomarkers for diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrate that circulating miRNAs are delivered into certain recipient cells and act as messengers. These studies suggest that miRNAs provide new therapeutic opportunities.International journal of vascular medicine 01/2012; 2012:794898.