The influence of calcineurin inhibitors on mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics.
ABSTRACT Despite the fact that concentrations of mycophenolic acid (MPA) are not routinely measured, accumulating data suggest the usefulness of this monitoring to optimize therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of CsA and tacrolimus on MPA pharmacokinetics. Concentrations of MPA were measured using HPLC. An assay was performed before dose (the C(0)), as well as at 40 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 hours after administration of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). MPA profiles were assessed in 51 patients receiving tacrolimus at a dose of 1.0 g/d and prednisone as well as in 97 patients receiving CsA (2.0 g/d) and prednisone. Significant correlations of MPA levels with serum albumin and GFR were observed in both groups. Women presented with higher levels of MPA than men. C(0) MPA level among the tacrolimus group were significantly higher than those in CsA group: 3.18 +/- 2.21 microg/mL versus 1.68 +/- 1.03 microg/mL (P </=.001). The level of MPA AUC((0-12)) in the tacrolimus group was nonsignificantly higher than that in the CsA group. There was no second peak of MPA level in a group of patients receiving CsA. We developed a limited sampling strategy to estimate MPA AUC((0-12)) in both tacrolimus and CsA groups. We observed a correlation between C(0) MPA and C(0) CsA (r =.35; P </=.001) as well as, between tacrolimus dose and MPA C(40) and MPA C(max) (r =.24; P </=.05; r =.27; P </= 0.05, respectively). No relationship between MPA pharmacokinetics and tacrolimus blood concentrations was noticed. Tacrolimus and CsA both affect the pharmacokinetics of MPA; high MPA concentrations in patients treated with tacrolimus justify MMF dose reduction in this group. Alterations of CsA concentrations must be used to guide MMF dose adjustments.
- SourceAvailable from: Iman Karimzadeh[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To determine the mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetic profile early after transplant in Iranian kidney graft recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed during 6 months in 31 patients who recently had kidney transplant and received fixed doses of mycophenolate mofetil (2 g/d). The plasma levels of mycophenolic acid were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The mean first mycophenolic acid peak level was 10 ± 5 mg/L. The mean mycophenolic acid area under the curve was 26 ± 19 mgh/L and apparent clearance was 57 ± 55 L/h. The mycophenolic acid area under the curve values of only 8 patients (26%) were within the therapeutic range (30-60 mgh/L). The first, second, and third mycophenolic acid peak levels correlated significantly with mycophenolic acid area under the curve (P < .05). Mycophenolic acid concentration at 10 hours had the highest correlation with mycophenolic acid area under the curve (r=0.962; P < .05). No statistically significant differences were evident in the mean mycophenolic acid area under the curve between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high degree of variation between different patients in mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics early after kidney transplant.Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. 11/2012;
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ABSTRACT: The influence of pantoprazole 40 mg twice daily on the bioavailability of a single dose of mycophenolate mofetil 1000 mg or enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium is investigated in healthy volunteers. The plasma concentrations of mycophenolic acid and of the inactive metabolite mycophenolic acid glucuronide are measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters following sole administration are similar for mycophenolate mofetil and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium except for the time to peak concentration, which is longer in the enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium group. Concomitant treatment with pantoprazole significantly (P < .001) lowers the mycophenolic acid exposure following administration of mycophenolate mofetil. The peak concentrations drop by 57%, and area under the curve decreases from 0 to 12 hours by 27%. In contrast, pantoprazole does not change the pharmacokinetics of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium. Given that mycophenolic acid exposure correlates with the incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejections in renal transplant recipients, these findings may have clinical implications. Administration of pantoprazole in combination with mycophenolate mofetil could possibly result in an insufficient mycophenolic acid exposure, increasing the risk of treatment failure.The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/2009; 49(10):1196-201. · 2.84 Impact Factor
- Journal of Pharmaceutical Care. 01/2013; 1(1):13-18.