Puerto Rican drug users experiences of physical and sexual abuse: comparisons based on sexual identities.
ABSTRACT This study integrates the results of quantitative and qualitative methods to elucidate the association between sexual identity and physical and sexual abuse among Puerto Rican drug users. A structured questionnaire was administered to 800 subjects in New York and 399 in Puerto Rico. A total of 93 subjects (7.9%) self-identified as homosexual or bisexual. Gay males were significantly more likely than heterosexual males to report first occurrence of physical abuse by a family member in childhood. Both gay and bisexual males were more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to report first experiencing unwanted sex in childhood and intimate partner physical abuse later in life. Lesbians were more likely than female heterosexuals to report unwanted sex in childhood. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth life histories with 21 subjects and suggest that gay and lesbian subjects perceive antihomosexual prejudice on the part of family members as one cause of childhood physical and sexual abuse.
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ABSTRACT: Stressful childhood experiences (SCE) are associated with many different health outcomes, such as psychiatric symptoms, physical illnesses, alcohol and drug abuse, and victimization experiences. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are at risk to be victims of SCE and show higher prevalence of SCE when compared with heterosexual controls. This review analyzed systematically 73 articles that addressed different types of SCE in sexual minority populations and included items of household dysfunction. The samples included adults who identified either their sexual orientation as non-heterosexual or their gender identity as transgender. The studies reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), childhood physical neglect, and childhood emotional neglect. Items of household dysfunction were substance abuse of caregiver, parental separation, family history of mental illness, incarceration of caregiver, and witnessing violence. Prevalence of CSA showed a median of 33.5 % for studies using non-probability sampling and 20.7 % for those with probability sampling, the rates for CPA were 23.5 % (non-probability sampling) and 28.7 % (probability sampling). For CEA, the rates were 48.5 %, non-probability sampling, and 47.5 %, probability sampling. Outcomes related to SCE in LGBT populations included psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse, revictimization, dysfunctional behavioral adjustments, and others. LGBT populations showed high prevalence of SCE. Outcomes related to SCE ranged from psychiatric symptoms and disorders to physical ailments. Most studies were based in the USA. Future research should aim to target culturally different LGBT population in the rest of the world.Social Psychiatry 03/2014; 49(9). DOI:10.1007/s00127-014-0854-8 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Vancouver's Downtown Eastside is home to Canada's largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and ‘marginal men’ (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants’ spatial practices. Results Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived ‘dope quality’ of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into “dangerous” drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Conclusion Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection services, to minimize violence and potential drug-related risks among these highly-vulnerable PWID.The International journal on drug policy 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.drugpo.2013.11.006 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study sought to describe childhood sexual experiences with older partners (CSEOP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. MSM were recruited through respondent driven sampling. They responded to a computer administered self-interview with questions on CSEOP, operationalized as manual, oral, genital, or anal contact prior to age 13 with a partner at least 4 years older. Of the 500 respondents, only 25% identified as gay. Eighteen percent of the respondents reported CSEOP, the majority of whom did not feel they were hurt by the experience and did not consider it to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Over two-thirds of MSM who reported CSEOP said that their older partner was a female. Only 4% of those with a female partner felt their experience was CSA compared to 44% of those who had a male partner. Among all men reporting CSEOP, those who felt sexually abused were more likely to have been physically forced or threatened, physically hurt, and emotionally hurt than those who did not feel sexually abused. Having CSEOP, being hurt by the experiences, and perceiving the experiences as sexual abuse were not associated with current HIV sexual risk or substance use behavior. In this sample of MSM in Argentina, a substantial minority reported CSEOP. Those who felt they had been sexually abused were much more likely to have had an older male partner than an older female partner, and were more likely to report having been physically forced and threatened by their older partner.Child abuse & neglect 10/2013; 38(2). DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.09.006 · 2.34 Impact Factor