High incidence of benign testicular neoplasms diagnosed by ultrasound.
ABSTRACT We evaluated the clinical and histological significance of incidental ultrasonographic focal testicular lesions and assessed whether a conservative surgical approach may put the patient at higher oncological risk due to insufficient surgical eradication.
From October 2000 to May 2002 all patients with infertility, scrotal swelling, scrotal pain, varicocele, scrotal trauma or erectile dysfunction underwent scrotal ultrasonography. A total of 1,320 patients were investigated. Focal testicular lesions were found in 27 patients (2%), palpable nodules were present in 17 (63%) and nonpalpable incidental lesions were diagnosed in 10. Nodule diameter was 3 to 24 mm. All patients underwent explorative surgery via inguinotomy and preventive clamping of the spermatic cord. The nodules were completely removed with biopsy of the resection margins. Nonpalpable lesions were removed under ultrasonographic guidance. The testicle was only preserved when frozen section revealed a benign lesion and margins were negative.
Of the 17 cases of palpable lesions (diameter 3 to 24 mm) conservative surgery was performed in 8 (47%). Definitive histological diagnosis showed Leydig cell tumor in 2 (25%), and large cell calcifying Sertoli's cell tumor, adenomatoid tumor, pseudofibrotic tumor of the tunica albuginea, epidermoid cyst, tubular fibrosis and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in each 1 (12.5%). The remaining 9 patients (53%) underwent orchidectomy. Definitive histological examination revealed pure seminoma in 4 patients (44%), embryonal carcinoma in 4 (44%) and diffuse Leydig cell hyperplasia in 1 (12%). Seven of the 10 pts (70%) with nonpalpable nodules (diameter 4 to 16 mm) underwent conservative surgery. Histological study revealed focal Leydig cell hyperplasia in 1 case (10%), fibrosis in 3 (30%), infarction in 2 (20%) and mesothelial hyperplasia in 1 (10%). Orchiectomy was performed in the remaining 3 pts. Histology showed diffuse Leydig cell tumor in 2 pts (20%) and adenomatoid tumor with abscessed areas in 1 (10%). Neither atrophy nor local relapse was observed in pts who underwent conservative treatment during followup (mean: 1 month, range 19 to 9).
The incidental diagnosis of testicular ultrasound alterations is increasing and 80% show a benign histology. In these cases a conservative surgical approach is the best option and it does not expose the patient to the risk of relapse.
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ABSTRACT: Benign intrascrotal fibrous proliferations are uncommon, with most arising from the paratesticular region and falling into the category of so-called fibrous pseudotumor. We describe two neoplastic forms of benign fibrous tumor of the testis and its adnexa: fibroma of gonadal stromal origin and fibroma of the testicular tunics. Three patients with gonadal stromal fibroma were 28, 33, and 35 years of age and presented with painless masses. The tumors were circumscribed, intratesticular, yellow-white or white lesions 0.9 to 4.0 cm in diameter and had microscopic features identical to those of the ovarian fibroma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were strongly positive for vimentin (3/3 cases), focally positive for actin and desmin (2/3 cases) and negative for S-100, keratin, and CD34 (3/3 cases). Six fibromas of the testicular tunics arose in patients 22, 34, 60, 68, 70, and 74 years old and were also asymptomatic masses. Four of them were circumscribed, whorled, white masses arising from the tunica albuginea with variable areas of myxoid change; one was pedunculated and grew exclusively into the cavity of the tunica vaginalis, whereas the other three at least partially extended into the testis as well. The other two tumors were unattached to the tunica albuginea and presented as circumscribed, white-tan paratesticular masses, partially covered by tunica vaginalis. Microscopically, the tumors were slightly to moderately cellular, with bland spindle or stellate cells lying in a myxoid or collagenous stroma with prominent vessels. The two paratesticular tumors had features typical of solitary fibrous tumor. Immunohistochemically, the fibromas of the testicular tunics were negative for S-100, keratin, and desmin. Focal, weak reactivity for actin was present in one case. CD34 was positive in three cases; in the two tumors resembling solitary fibrous tumors it was strong, and in the other it was focal and was limited to the region just below the tunica vaginalis. Eight tumors were treated by radical orchiectomy and one by excision of the mass alone. The outcome was benign in the seven cases in which followup information is available.American Journal of Surgical Pathology 04/1997; 21(3):296-305. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe a technique by which incidental, nonpalpable intratesticular tumors are excised using intraoperative ultrasonography and the operating microscope. Men with impalpable intratesticular tumors incidentally detected by ultrasonography underwent intraoperative ultrasound guided needle localization and microsurgical exploration of the mass. The testis was delivered through an inguinal incision and placed on ice to minimize warm ischemia. Two rubber shod vascular clamps were placed across the spermatic cord. The tumor was identified by ultrasound and localized with a 30 gauge needle, which was placed adjacent to the tumor. An operating microscope providing 6x to 25x magnification was used to excise the lesion with a 2 to 5 mm. margin. Tissue diagnosis was obtained by frozen section. Multiple random biopsies of the remaining parenchyma were done to confirm absent malignancy. Ultrasound showed incidental, nonpalpable testis tumors in 4 of the 65 men who underwent infertility evaluation and were entered into the microsurgical testis biopsy database between January 1995 and December 2001. All lesions were hypoechoic. Frozen section analysis of the lesions revealed 2 Leydig cell tumors, 1 mass with an inconclusive pathological diagnosis and 1 inflammatory mass. On permanent section the latter 2 lesions were seminoma. The seminomas were 1.6 and 0.9 cm. in the greatest diameter, and the Leydig cell tumors were 0.35 and 0.2 cm., respectively. Random biopsies were positive for seminoma and intratubular germ cell neoplasia in both testes with seminoma. These 2 patients subsequently opted to undergo radical orchiectomy. No residual tumor was detected in either radical orchiectomy specimen. Intraoperative ultrasound guided needle localization with microsurgical exploration is a safe and effective approach to even small impalpable testicular masses. This technique provides the opportunity to identify and remove benign and malignant lesions, and preserve the testis when the lesion is benign. In cases of a solitary testis or bilateral synchronous lesions the technique allows a potentially testis sparing operation for small malignancies.The Journal of Urology 10/2002; 168(3):1084-7. · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to: (1) establish the causes of scrotal swelling in the hospital catchment population; (2) define the role of high frequency ultrasound examination in the management of scrotal swelling. A retrospective study of 582 patients who had high frequency ultrasound examination was carried out. Those requiring more information on perfusion had colour doppler examination. Forty-four per cent of examinations were performed for scrotal swelling. The cause of the scrotal swelling was mainly extratesticular (75% of all scrotal swellings), hydrocele being the commonest. Of the intratesticular causes, infection (50.8%) and tumour (20.6%) were the commonest. In conclusion ultrasound examination distinguishes extratesticular (almost always benign) from intratesticular (potentially malignant) causes of scrotal swelling. Infection, trauma and torsion mimic the ultrasound appearance of tumour as do rare benign entities.International Journal of STD & AIDS 06/2000; 11(5):297-302. · 1.00 Impact Factor