Cisplatin and platinum drugs at the molecular level. (Review).
ABSTRACT Over twenty years of intensive work toward improvement of cisplatin, and with hundreds of platinum drugs tested, has resulted in the introduction of the widely used carboplatin and of oxaliplatin used only for a very narrow spectrum of cancers. A number of interesting platinum compounds including the orally administered platinum drug JM216, nedaplatin, the sterically hindered platinum(II) complex ZD0473, the trinuclear platinum complex BBR3464, and the liposomal forms Lipoplatin and SPI-77 are under clinical evaluation. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of platinum compounds for DNA damage, DNA repair and induction of apoptosis via activation or modulation of signaling pathways and explores the basis of platinum resistance. Cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin and most other platinum compounds induce damage to tumors via induction of apoptosis; this is mediated by activation of signal transduction leading to the death receptor mechanisms as well as mitochondrial pathways. Apoptosis is responsible for the characteristic nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and most other toxicities of the drugs. The major limitation in the clinical applications of cisplatin has been the development of cisplatin resistance by tumors. Mechanisms explaining cisplatin resistance include the reduction in cisplatin accumulation inside cancer cells because of barriers across the cell membrane, the faster repair of cisplatin adducts, the modulation of apoptotic pathways in various cells, the upregulation in transcription factors, the loss of p53 and other protein functions and a higher concentration of glutathione and metallothioneins in some type of tumors. A number of experimental strategies to overcome cisplatin resistance are at the preclinical or clinical level such as introduction of the bax gene, inhibition of the JNK pathway, introduction of a functional p53 gene, treatment of tumors with aldose reductase inhibitors and others. Particularly important are combinations of platinum drug treatments with other drugs, radiation and the emerging gene therapy regimens.
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ABSTRACT: Patented platform technologies have been used for the liposomal encapsulation of cisplatin (Lipoplatin) into tumor-targeted 110 nm (in diameter) nanoparticles. The molecular mechanisms, preclinical and clinical data concerning lipoplatin, are reviewed here. Lipoplatin has been successfully administered in three randomized Phase II and III clinical trials. The clinical data mainly include non-small-cell lung cancer but also pancreatic, breast, and head and neck cancers. It is anticipated that lipoplatin will replace cisplatin as well as increase its potential applications. For the first time, a platinum drug has shown superiority to cisplatin, at least in non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer as reported in a Phase III study which documented a simultaneous lowering of all of the side effects of cisplatin.Journal of drug delivery. 01/2012; 2012:581363.
Article: The aurora kinase A inhibitor MLN8237 enhances cisplatin-induced cell death in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Esophageal adenocarcinomas are poorly responsive to chemotherapeutics. This study aimed to determine the levels of Aurora kinase A (AURKA) and the therapeutic potential of MLN8237, an investigational AURKA inhibitor, alone and in combination with cisplatin. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we detected frequent AURKA gene amplification (15 of 34, 44%) and mRNA overexpression (37 of 44, 84%) in esophageal adenocarcinomas (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis showed overexpression of AURKA in more than two-thirds of esophageal adenocarcinoma tissue samples (92 of 132, 70%; P < 0.001). Using FLO-1, OE19, and OE33 esophageal adenocarinoma cell lines, with constitutive AURKA overexpression and mutant p53, we observed inhibition of colony formation with a single treatment of 0.5 μmol/L MLN8237 (P < 0.05). This effect was further enhanced in combination with 2.5 μmol/L cisplatin (P < 0.001). Twenty-four hours after treatment with the MLN8237 or MLN8237 and cisplatin, cell-cycle analyses showed a sharp increase in the percentage of polyploid cells (P < 0.001). This was followed by an increase in the percentage of cells in the sub-G(1) phase at 72 hours, concordant with the occurrence of cell death (P < 0.001). Western blot analysis showed higher induction of TAp73β, PUMA, NOXA, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP with the combined treatment, as compared with a single-agent treatment. Using xenograft models, we showed an enhanced antitumor role for the MLN8237 and cisplatin combination, as compared with single-agent treatments (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study shows frequent overexpression of AURKA and suggests that MLN8237 could be an effective antitumor agent, which can be combined with cisplatin for a better therapeutic outcome in esophageal adenocarcinomas.Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 03/2012; 11(3):763-74. · 5.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cisplatin is an effective anticancer drug that elicits many side effects mainly due to induction of oxidative and nitrosative stresses during prolonged chemotherapy. The severity of these side effects consequently restricts its clinical use under long term treatment. Riboflavin is an essential vitamin used in various metabolic redox reactions in the form of flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide. Besides, it has excellent photosensitizing property that can be used to ameliorate these toxicities in mice under photodynamic therapy. Riboflavin, cisplatin and their combinations were given to the separate groups of mice under photoilluminated condition under specific treatment regime. Their kidney and liver were excised for comet assay and histopathological studies. Furthermore, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of riboflavin-cisplatin combination in vitro was also conducted to investigate any possible interaction between the two compounds. Their comet assay and histopathological examination revealed that riboflavin in combination with cisplatin was able to protect the tissues from cisplatin induced toxicities and damages. Moreover, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis of the combination indicated a strong molecular interaction among their constituent groups that may be assigned for the protective effect of the combination in the treated animals. Inclusion of riboflavin diminishes cisplatin induced toxicities which may possibly make the cisplatin-riboflavin combination, an effective treatment strategy under chemoradiotherapy in pronouncing its antineoplastic activity and sensitivity towards the cancer cells as compared to cisplatin alone.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e36273. · 4.09 Impact Factor