Influenza burden in children newborn to eleven months of age in a pediatric emergency department during the peak of an influenza epidemic.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the burden of influenza-related diseases in children 0 to 11 months of age during the peak of the 2001 to 2002 influenza epidemic.
This was a prospective study at the Pediatric Emergency Department of Edouard Herriot tertiary teaching hospital in Lyon, France. The study included 304 infants 0 to 11 months of age. Consecutive patients were systematically enrolled during the 4 weeks of the influenza epidemic peak (Weeks 3 to 6, 2002). Influenza viruses were detected by antigen detection and virus culture from nasal swabs. Structured telephone interviews were conducted on Days 8 and 15 after virus detection. There was also a 6-month survey into the medicoadministrative database to detect late complications that required delayed hospitalization of influenza-positive children.
Influenza virus was detected in 99 (33%) of 304 patients (A/H3N2 in 30% and B in 3%). Nonrespiratory symptoms were the dominant clinical manifestations in 30% of influenza-positive children. One child with influenza presented with febrile seizures. Twenty (20%) children with influenza were hospitalized. Parents reported recovery from the illness in 63 and 94% of children on Days 8 and 15, respectively. The median length of an influenza episode was 8 days.
Our results confirm the high prevalence of influenza-related morbidity in infants during the epidemic peak. One child in three consulting to the pediatric emergency room had a virologically confirmed influenza infection regardless of the body temperature. Every fifth child with influenza was admitted to hospital, which corresponds to an admission rate of 237 per 100 000 children 0 to 11 months of age.
- SourceAvailable from: David K Shay[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Statistical methods used to estimate deaths in the United States attributable to influenza have not accounted for RSV circulation. To develop a statistical model using national mortality and viral surveillance data to estimate annual influenza- and RSV-associated deaths in the United States, by age group, virus, and influenza type and subtype. Age-specific Poisson regression models using national viral surveillance data for the 1976-1977 through 1998-1999 seasons were used to estimate influenza-associated deaths. Influenza- and RSV-associated deaths were simultaneously estimated for the 1990-1991 through 1998-1999 seasons. Attributable deaths for 3 categories: underlying pneumonia and influenza, underlying respiratory and circulatory, and all causes. Annual estimates of influenza-associated deaths increased significantly between the 1976-1977 and 1998-1999 seasons for all 3 death categories (P<.001 for each category). For the 1990-1991 through 1998-1999 seasons, the greatest mean numbers of deaths were associated with influenza A(H3N2) viruses, followed by RSV, influenza B, and influenza A(H1N1). Influenza viruses and RSV, respectively, were associated with annual means (SD) of 8097 (3084) and 2707 (196) underlying pneumonia and influenza deaths, 36 155 (11 055) and 11 321 (668) underlying respiratory and circulatory deaths, and 51 203 (15 081) and 17 358 (1086) all-cause deaths. For underlying respiratory and circulatory deaths, 90% of influenza- and 78% of RSV-associated deaths occurred among persons aged 65 years or older. Influenza was associated with more deaths than RSV in all age groups except for children younger than 1 year. On average, influenza was associated with 3 times as many deaths as RSV. Mortality associated with both influenza and RSV circulation disproportionately affects elderly persons. Influenza deaths have increased substantially in the last 2 decades, in part because of aging of the population, underscoring the need for better prevention measures, including more effective vaccines and vaccination programs for elderly persons.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2003; 289(2):179-86. · 29.98 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An outbreak of severe pneumococcal pneumonia among children occurred in Iowa from November 1995 through January 1996. An associated outbreak of influenza disease was predominantly caused by influenza A (H1N1) for the first time since 1989. We conducted a case-control study to determine whether preceding influenza infection was directly associated with pneumococcal illness. We identified 13 children with severe pneumococcal pneumonia. Patients were more likely than control subjects to report experiencing an influenza-like illness in the 7-28 days preceding admission (matched odds ratio [OR], 12.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-306). Likewise, family members of patients were more likely than those of control subjects to report experiencing an influenza-like illness in the 28 days preceding their admission date (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.0-6. 3). Patients were more likely than control subjects to have a positive influenza A (H1N1) convalescent serology (matched OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.0-18.1). This study provides direct and indirect evidence that influenza infection led to severe pneumococcal pneumonia among these children. Prevention of pneumococcal disease should be included among the potential benefits of influenza vaccination.Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2000; 30(5):784-9. · 9.37 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Influenzavirus vaccine is used infrequently in healthy children, even though the rates of influenza in this group are high. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a live attenuated, cold-adapted, trivalent influenzavirus vaccine in children 15 to 71 months old. Two hundred eighty-eight children were assigned to receive one dose of vaccine or placebo given by intranasal spray, and 1314 were assigned to receive two doses approximately 60 days apart. The strains included in the vaccine were antigenically equivalent to those in the inactivated influenzavirus vaccine in use at the time. The subjects were monitored with viral cultures for influenza during the subsequent influenza season. A case of influenza was defined as an illness associated with the isolation of wild-type influenzavirus from respiratory secretions. The intranasal vaccine was accepted and well tolerated. Among children who were initially seronegative, antibody titers increased by a factor of four in 61 to 96 percent, depending on the influenza strain. Culture-positive influenza was significantly less common in the vaccine group (14 cases among 1070 subjects) than the placebo group (95 cases among 532 subjects). The vaccine efficacy was 93 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 88 to 96 percent) against culture-confirmed influenza. Both the one-dose regimen (89 percent efficacy) and the two-dose regimen (94 percent efficacy) were efficacious, and the vaccine was efficacious against both strains of influenza circulating in 1996-1997, A(H3N2) and B. The vaccinated children had significantly fewer febrile illnesses, including 30 percent fewer episodes of febrile otitis media (95 percent confidence interval, 18 to 45 percent; P<0.001). A live attenuated, cold-adapted influenzavirus vaccine was safe, immunogenic, and effective against influenza A(H3N2) and B in healthy children.New England Journal of Medicine 05/1998; 338(20):1405-12. · 51.66 Impact Factor