Article

In vitro fermentation characteristics of selected oligosaccharides by swine fecal microflora.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA.
Journal of Animal Science (Impact Factor: 2.09). 10/2003; 81(10):2505-14.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to quantify the fermentation characteristics of oligosaccharides present in feed ingredients or isolated for dietary supplementation. Substrates studied included short-chain fructooligosaccharides, medium-chain fructooligosaccharides, long-chain fructooligosaccharides, raffinose, stachyose, soy solubles, granular and liquid forms of transgalactooligosaccharides, glucooligosaccharides, mannanoligosaccharides, and xylooligosaccharides. Three healthy pigs that had never received antibiotics served as sources of fecal inoculum. Each substrate was fermented in vitro; samples were taken at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h, and pH change and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and gas production determined. Gas production at 12 h did not differ (P > 0.05) among all fructooligosaccharides, transgalactooligosaccharides, soy solubles, and xylooligosaccharides. Raffinose, stachyose, and raffinose + stachyose fermentation resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) gas production at 12 h of all substrates tested. The rate of gas production was greatest (P < 0.05) for stachyose and least (P < 0.05) for glucooligosaccharides and mannanoligosaccharides. Substrate did not affect (P > 0.05) time to attain maximal rate of gas production. The pH at 12 h for all fructooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides did not differ (P > 0.05). The pH values at 12 h for raffinose, stachyose, and raffinose + stachyose were highest (P < 0.05) compared with all other substrates. Total SCFA production at 12 h was similar for all fructooligosaccharides and transgalactooligosaccharides, glucooligosaccharides, and soy solubles. Total SCFA production was greatest (P < 0.05) for xylooligosaccharides, stachyose, and raffinose + stachyose, and least (P < 0.05) for mannanoligosaccharides and raffinose. Stachyose fermentation resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) rate and earliest time to attain maximal rate of SCFA production. All oligosaccharides studied were readily fermentable but varied in amount and type of SCFA produced. Fermentation of the pure forms of oligosaccharides contained in soy solubles resulted in greater gas production and higher pH compared with soy solubles. The oligosaccharides in the soy solubles matrix seemed to behave differently than their pure counterparts. The high rates of fermentation of most oligosaccharides tested indicate that they may serve as fermentable carbohydrate sources in the terminal small intestine or large intestine of swine.

16 Bookmarks
 · 
1,185 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermented diets including liquid by-products on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in growing pigs. Treatments were 1) CON (basal diet), 2) F (fermented diet with basal diet), 3) KF (fermented diet with basal diet including 30% kale pomace), 4) AF (fermented diet with basal diet including 30% angelica keiskei pomace), 5) CF (fermented diet with basal diet including 30% carrot pomace) and 6) OF (fermented diet with basal diet including 30% grape pomace). A total of 24 pigs (41.74kg average initial body weight, Landrace Yorkshire Duroc), were assigned to 6 treatments, 4 replicates and 1 pig per metabolic cage in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Pigs were housed in $0.5\times1.3m$ metabolic cage in a 17d digestibility trial. During the entire experimental period, Digestibility of dry matter (p
    Journal of Animal Environmental Science. 01/2010; 16(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Different strains of Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli and Pediococci spp. were evaluated for their utilization of xylo-oligosaccharides derived from Bengal gram husk and wheat bran water extractable polysaccharides. The fermentation pattern of xylo-oligosaccharides by bacteria depends on the nature of xylo-oligosaccharides i.e. degree of polymerization and arabinose to xylose ratio as well as the bacterial strain tested, which inturn are very important for designing species-specific prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides and synbiotic preparations for incorporation in various health foods. All the bacterial strains tested readily utilized xylo-oligosaccharides derived from bengal gram husk and wheat bran as indicated by the increase in (a) turbidity of the culture broth (b) xylanase, xylosidase and arabinosidase activities (c) dry cell mass and (d) the liberation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Acetate was found to be the major SCFA produced as the end product of fermentation and its amount varied from 75.4 to 100 mol%. Xylo-oligosaccharides derived from wheat bran were found to have better prebiotic activity compared to the one derived from Bengal gram husk and this can be ascribed to relatively high amount of arabinose.
    Journal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore- 12/2012; 49(6):745-752. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Soybean contains a high concentration of carbohydrates that consist mainly of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and oligosaccharides. The NSP can be divided into insoluble NSP (mainly cellulose) and soluble NSP (composed mainly of pectic polymers, which are partially soluble in water). Monogastric animals do not have the enzymes to hydrolyze these carbohydrates, and thus their digestion occurs by means of bacterial fermentation. The fermentation of soybean carbohydrates produces short chain fatty acids that can be used as an energy source by animals. The utilization efficiency of the carbohydrates is related to the chemical structure, the level of inclusion in the diet, species and age of the animal. In poultry, soluble NSP can increase digesta viscosity, reduce the digestibility of nutrients and depress growth performance. In growing pigs, these effects, in particular the effect on gut viscosity, are often not so obvious. However, in weaning piglets, it is reported that soy oligosaccharides and soluble NSP can cause detrimental effects on intestinal health. In monogastrics, consideration must be given to the anti-nutritive effect of the NSP on nutrient digestion and absorption on one hand, as well as the potential benefits or detriments of intestinal fermentation products to the host. This mirrors the needs for i) increasing efficiency of utilization of fibrous materials in monogastrics, and ii) the maintenance and improvement of animal health in antibiotic-free production systems, on the other hand. For example, ethanol/water extraction removes the low molecular weight carbohydrate fractions, such as the oligosaccharides and part of the soluble pectins, leaving behind the insoluble fraction of the NSP, which is devoid of anti-nutritive activities. The resultant product is a high quality soy protein concentrate. This paper presents the composition and chemical structures of carbohydrates present in soybeans and discusses their nutritive and anti-nutritive effects on digestion and absorption of nutrients in pigs and poultry.
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 01/2010; 23(10). · 0.64 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
31 Downloads
Available from
May 29, 2014