Article

In vitro fermentation characteristics of selected oligosaccharides by swine fecal microflora.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA.
Journal of Animal Science (Impact Factor: 1.92). 10/2003; 81(10):2505-14.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to quantify the fermentation characteristics of oligosaccharides present in feed ingredients or isolated for dietary supplementation. Substrates studied included short-chain fructooligosaccharides, medium-chain fructooligosaccharides, long-chain fructooligosaccharides, raffinose, stachyose, soy solubles, granular and liquid forms of transgalactooligosaccharides, glucooligosaccharides, mannanoligosaccharides, and xylooligosaccharides. Three healthy pigs that had never received antibiotics served as sources of fecal inoculum. Each substrate was fermented in vitro; samples were taken at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h, and pH change and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and gas production determined. Gas production at 12 h did not differ (P > 0.05) among all fructooligosaccharides, transgalactooligosaccharides, soy solubles, and xylooligosaccharides. Raffinose, stachyose, and raffinose + stachyose fermentation resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) gas production at 12 h of all substrates tested. The rate of gas production was greatest (P < 0.05) for stachyose and least (P < 0.05) for glucooligosaccharides and mannanoligosaccharides. Substrate did not affect (P > 0.05) time to attain maximal rate of gas production. The pH at 12 h for all fructooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides did not differ (P > 0.05). The pH values at 12 h for raffinose, stachyose, and raffinose + stachyose were highest (P < 0.05) compared with all other substrates. Total SCFA production at 12 h was similar for all fructooligosaccharides and transgalactooligosaccharides, glucooligosaccharides, and soy solubles. Total SCFA production was greatest (P < 0.05) for xylooligosaccharides, stachyose, and raffinose + stachyose, and least (P < 0.05) for mannanoligosaccharides and raffinose. Stachyose fermentation resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) rate and earliest time to attain maximal rate of SCFA production. All oligosaccharides studied were readily fermentable but varied in amount and type of SCFA produced. Fermentation of the pure forms of oligosaccharides contained in soy solubles resulted in greater gas production and higher pH compared with soy solubles. The oligosaccharides in the soy solubles matrix seemed to behave differently than their pure counterparts. The high rates of fermentation of most oligosaccharides tested indicate that they may serve as fermentable carbohydrate sources in the terminal small intestine or large intestine of swine.

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In Chapter 3 the effects of different processing conditions were examined on whole seed flours of tested ingredients with respect to both nutritional and antinutritional factors and physical characteristics of the experimental diet pellets including high and low levels of each legume. Extrusion of raw material resulted in a clear reduction in trypsin inhibitors (TI) with chickpeas showing a decrease of up to 90% and complete inactivation for wheat flour, while for peas and faba beans reduction was less than 50% in most cases. Extrusion processing was less effective in the reduction of phytic acid and total tannins, occasionally reaching 22% and 18% respectively. Oligosaccharides and total NSP were not drastically affected by processing, however faba bean NSP showed greater reduction. A redistribution of soluble and insoluble NSP fractions was noted for chickpea and pea flours after extrusion. Physical characteristics of the pellets were not negatively affected for any of the tested diets. In Experiment I the effects of total or partial wheat substitution by legumes were investigated on nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal evacuation rate and serum glucose response of European seabass. Use of legumes in seabass and seabream diets resulted in an overall increase in gastrointestinal evacuation time and a delay in glucose load. Specifically, gastric evacuation time was greatly delayed when seabass was fed a diet with high levels (30%) of chickpeas, while foregut evacuation time was mostly delayed by the diet including a high level (30%) of faba beans. In addition, glucose levels in seabass serum were also affected by the type of carbohydrates ingested with wheat starch showing more rapid increase and decrease of glucose compared to fish fed pea and chickpea diets, while faba bean starch resulted in a lower glucose peak. In Experiment II growth, digestibility, hematological parameters, histological effects and fillet organoleptic characteristics and the interaction between starch inclusion level (8% and 16% or 17% and 35% of legumes respectively) and legume type were estimated when tested legumes replaced wheat in European seabass diets. Digestibility coefficients were satisfactory for all nutrients (>93%) while legume diets at a low level had beneficial effects on growth parameters when compared to the control diet, with chickpeas showing a significant improvement in SGR (P<0.05). High level legume diets did not result in any negative effect on growth. HSI was increased with increasing starch/legume inclusion in the feed and serum glucose also increased for fish fed high levels of faba beans and chickpeas. Carcass proximate composition was not affected by replacement of wheat in the diets, excluding the increase of fat content in fish fed chickpeas. Sensory analysis showed no differences between fish fed the control and high legume inclusion diets. Lastly in Experiment III growth, hematological parameters, histological effects and the interaction between starch inclusion level (low and high) and legume type were evaluated when tested legumes were included in gilthead seabream diets. Decreased, but not significantly so, growth was observed for all diets including legumes compared to the control. Poorer SGR were observed for pea and faba bean diets when these legumes were included at high levels. Liver glycogen increased with increasing starch level, but HSI did not differ significantly for any of the diet treatments. Histological examination of hindgut did not show pathological effects, such as enteritis, for in either species or for any of the diets. Increased absorptive vacuoles were found for control and pea diets (high level) only for seabass. The findings of this thesis showed that the two important species cultivated in Mediterranean countries responded differently to the same raw materials used at high levels in the diets. Overall legumes had a strong effect on gastrointestinal evacuation reducing the rate of feed or digesta passage. Peas, chickpeas and faba beans successfully replaced wheat in seabass diets resulting in improved growth coefficients. However, when the same legumes included in seabream diets growth performance was not improved compared to the wheat based diet.
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