In vitro fermentation characteristics of selected oligosaccharides by swine fecal microflora.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to quantify the fermentation characteristics of oligosaccharides present in feed ingredients or isolated for dietary supplementation. Substrates studied included short-chain fructooligosaccharides, medium-chain fructooligosaccharides, long-chain fructooligosaccharides, raffinose, stachyose, soy solubles, granular and liquid forms of transgalactooligosaccharides, glucooligosaccharides, mannanoligosaccharides, and xylooligosaccharides. Three healthy pigs that had never received antibiotics served as sources of fecal inoculum. Each substrate was fermented in vitro; samples were taken at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h, and pH change and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and gas production determined. Gas production at 12 h did not differ (P > 0.05) among all fructooligosaccharides, transgalactooligosaccharides, soy solubles, and xylooligosaccharides. Raffinose, stachyose, and raffinose + stachyose fermentation resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) gas production at 12 h of all substrates tested. The rate of gas production was greatest (P < 0.05) for stachyose and least (P < 0.05) for glucooligosaccharides and mannanoligosaccharides. Substrate did not affect (P > 0.05) time to attain maximal rate of gas production. The pH at 12 h for all fructooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides did not differ (P > 0.05). The pH values at 12 h for raffinose, stachyose, and raffinose + stachyose were highest (P < 0.05) compared with all other substrates. Total SCFA production at 12 h was similar for all fructooligosaccharides and transgalactooligosaccharides, glucooligosaccharides, and soy solubles. Total SCFA production was greatest (P < 0.05) for xylooligosaccharides, stachyose, and raffinose + stachyose, and least (P < 0.05) for mannanoligosaccharides and raffinose. Stachyose fermentation resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) rate and earliest time to attain maximal rate of SCFA production. All oligosaccharides studied were readily fermentable but varied in amount and type of SCFA produced. Fermentation of the pure forms of oligosaccharides contained in soy solubles resulted in greater gas production and higher pH compared with soy solubles. The oligosaccharides in the soy solubles matrix seemed to behave differently than their pure counterparts. The high rates of fermentation of most oligosaccharides tested indicate that they may serve as fermentable carbohydrate sources in the terminal small intestine or large intestine of swine.
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ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate single sources and blends of dietary fiber in dog food. In Exp. 1, 14 fibrous substrates were fermented in vitro using dog feces as the source of inoculum. Organic matter disappearance was lowest (P < .05; < 10%) for Solka Floc and oat fiber and greatest (P < .05; > 80%) for fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and lactulose. Solka Floc, oat fiber, gum karaya, and xanthan gum produced the least (P < .05; < 1 mmol/g of substrate OM) total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Lactulose, citrus pectin, and guar gum produced the greatest (P < .05; > 6.8 mmol/g of substrate OM) total SCFA. In Exp. 2, six diets were formulated based on results obtained in Exp. 1. Treatments included 1) beet pulp (BP), 2) Solka Floc (SF), 3) citrus pulp (CP), 4) stool blend (SB), 5) SCFA blend (SC), and 6) combination blend (CB). Digestibility of DM and total dietary fiber (TDF) was greatest (P < .05; 87.3 and 60.8%, respectively) for dogs consuming the SC diet. Feces from dogs fed SC were scored as more unformed and liquid in consistency than feces from dogs fed the other diets. Dogs consuming the SF and SB diets had the lowest (P < .05; 11.0 and 4.1%, respectively) TDF digestibilities. Organic matter disappearance values derived from substrates fermented in vitro reasonably predicted the fiber digestibility of diets fed to dogs. Moderately fermentable dietary fiber sources, such as BP, promote excellent stool characteristics without compromising nutrient digestibility, and may promote gastrointestinal tract health by optimizing SCFA production.Journal of Animal Science 05/1995; 73(4):1099-109. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A multiphasic growth function was used to relate growth of body components to phases of total growth for pigs. Each phase of growth was characterized by asymptotic weight, age at maximum gain, and duration. Age at maximum gain and duration were expressed as a ratio and assumed constant for all phases. One application involved weights of total DM predicted directly with a diphasic function and indirectly with monophasic functions of fat-free DM and fat. Another involved weights of carcass side predicted directly with a diphasic function and indirectly with monophasic functions of offal + muscle + bone and fat + skin. Components were grouped on age at maximum gain. There was good agreement for asymptotic weight between body components and phases, and general agreement for age at maximum gain and for duration, except for carcass weights. A multiphasic growth function may provide a way to examine fat-adjusted weight in living animals because growth of fat appears as a late phase in a multiphasic description of total body growth.Journal of Animal Science 09/1991; 69(8):3265-73. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SUMMARY The volatile fatty acid (VFA) production rates in the large intestine of the pigs and the effect of carbohydrate intake levels on these rates were examined. Eight Large White bar- rows, weighing about 23 kg, were allotted into two groups; one with a low level of carbohy- drate intake (LC group), and another with a high level of carbohydrate intake (HC group). In a digestion trial during the fifth week, the crude fiber digestibility in the LC group was higher (PJournal of Animal Science 09/1978; 47(2):467-78. · 2.09 Impact Factor