Article

In vitro fermentation characteristics of selected oligosaccharides by swine fecal microflora.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA.
Journal of Animal Science (Impact Factor: 2.09). 10/2003; 81(10):2505-14.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to quantify the fermentation characteristics of oligosaccharides present in feed ingredients or isolated for dietary supplementation. Substrates studied included short-chain fructooligosaccharides, medium-chain fructooligosaccharides, long-chain fructooligosaccharides, raffinose, stachyose, soy solubles, granular and liquid forms of transgalactooligosaccharides, glucooligosaccharides, mannanoligosaccharides, and xylooligosaccharides. Three healthy pigs that had never received antibiotics served as sources of fecal inoculum. Each substrate was fermented in vitro; samples were taken at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h, and pH change and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and gas production determined. Gas production at 12 h did not differ (P > 0.05) among all fructooligosaccharides, transgalactooligosaccharides, soy solubles, and xylooligosaccharides. Raffinose, stachyose, and raffinose + stachyose fermentation resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) gas production at 12 h of all substrates tested. The rate of gas production was greatest (P < 0.05) for stachyose and least (P < 0.05) for glucooligosaccharides and mannanoligosaccharides. Substrate did not affect (P > 0.05) time to attain maximal rate of gas production. The pH at 12 h for all fructooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides did not differ (P > 0.05). The pH values at 12 h for raffinose, stachyose, and raffinose + stachyose were highest (P < 0.05) compared with all other substrates. Total SCFA production at 12 h was similar for all fructooligosaccharides and transgalactooligosaccharides, glucooligosaccharides, and soy solubles. Total SCFA production was greatest (P < 0.05) for xylooligosaccharides, stachyose, and raffinose + stachyose, and least (P < 0.05) for mannanoligosaccharides and raffinose. Stachyose fermentation resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) rate and earliest time to attain maximal rate of SCFA production. All oligosaccharides studied were readily fermentable but varied in amount and type of SCFA produced. Fermentation of the pure forms of oligosaccharides contained in soy solubles resulted in greater gas production and higher pH compared with soy solubles. The oligosaccharides in the soy solubles matrix seemed to behave differently than their pure counterparts. The high rates of fermentation of most oligosaccharides tested indicate that they may serve as fermentable carbohydrate sources in the terminal small intestine or large intestine of swine.

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