The effects of serotonin on the differentiation of neurons producing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the rat.
ABSTRACT The morphogenetic influences of serotonin on the differentiation of neurons synthesizing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the suprachiasmatic nucleus were studied in rats. This was addressed by comparative morphofunctional analysis of VIP neurons in adult rats whose brains developed prenatally in conditions of normal and deficient serotonin metabolism. Serotonin deficiency was created in fetuses by treatment of their mothers with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). Pregnant females in controls were treated with 0.9% NaCl. VIP neurons in experimental and control animals were found to show no differences in VIP mRNA concentrations and, probably, in the level of VIP synthesis. However, inhibition of serotonin synthesis led to an increase in the number of VIP-immunoreactive neurons and an increase in the VIP concentration within these cells. This was not associated with any change in neuron size, which was an indicator of the absence of functional hypertrophy accompanying activation of specific synthesis. Comparison of the data obtained here showed that during prenatal ontogenesis, serotonin has an imprinting influence on the differentiation of VIP neurons and is probably involved in the formation of the mechanism of VIP secretion.
- SourceAvailable from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The transcriptome of a lager brewing yeast (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, syn. of S. pastorianus), was analysed at 12 different time points spanning a production-scale lager beer fermentation. Generally, the average expression rapidly increased and had a maximum value on day 2, then decreased as the sugar got consumed. Especially genes involved in protein and lipid biosynthesis or glycolysis were highly expressed during the beginning of the fermentation. Similarities as well as significant differences in expression profiles could be observed when comparing to a previous transcriptome analysis of a laboratory yeast grown in YPD. The regional distribution of various expression levels on the chromosomes appeared to be random or near-random and no reduction in expression near telomeres was observed.FEMS Yeast Research 01/2003; 2(4):563-73. · 2.46 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Major advances have been made in understanding the relatively novel group of vasoactive (vasodilatory) neuropeptides (VNs) in humans. VNs comprise a novel but expanding group of substances having immunoregulation, inflammation modulation, neurotransmitter, neurotrophic, hormonal and metabolic functions. These substances may control gene expression for mRNA for themselves and their receptors. They have complex relationships with gaseous and other neurotransmitters and xenobiotic substances. Theoretical arguments have implicated these substances in autoimmune phenomena resulting in fatigue-related conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), fibromyalgia (FM) and Gulf War syndrome (GWS) but remain unproven. As well as possibly spontaneous onset, the precipitating causes of VN autoimmune dysfunction are likely to be a combination of genetic predisposition, infection and xenobiotic substances. Therapeutic and preventive possibilities for postulated VN autoimmune conditions will be influenced by the complex patholophysiology underpinning them. Some speculative possibilities are VN substitution/replacement, preservation of biological effect, epigenetic DNA modifications, plasma exchange, anti-cholinesterases, e.g., pyridostigmine, corticosteroids and other drug treatments, thymectomy, intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-idiotype antibodies, and CpG/DNA vaccines. Prevention and treatment of possible VN autoimmune fatigue-related disorders may prove to be important areas for future research and development.Medical Hypotheses 02/2005; 65(4):797-803. · 1.18 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principal pacemaker that coordinates circadian rhythmicity in mammals. The studies on understanding the circadian system in diurnal rodents are limited. In this study, we have used the 3 striped South Indian Palm Squirrel (Funambulus palmarum). The locomotor activity showed a diurnal pattern of activity in LD 12:12, constant darkness (DD) and light (LL) conditions with circadian periods (τ) of 24.19 ± 0.1, 24.11 ± 0.03 and 24.92 ± 0.35 h respectively. Anatomical study of the brain revealed that this animal had short, thick and stout optic nerves with SCN elliptical in shape with a higher neuronal population as distinct from nocturnal rodents. Since the neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important roles in photic entrainment and relay of information respectively in nocturnal rodents, we studied the distribution and daily rhythms of VIP-ir and AVP-ir in squirrel SCN. The VIP-ir and AVP-ir cells in the SCN showed a ventrolateral and dorsomedial distribution with daily rhythmicity in their levels. The peak time of VIP-ir rhythm was found ahead of AVP-ir. The VIP-ir levels were higher for longer duration than AVP-ir levels. The maximum and minimum VIP-ir levels were at ZT-6 and ZT-0 respectively and AVP-ir levels at ZT-12 and ZT-0 respectively. Thus, VIP and AVP maximum and minimum levels appeared 6 and 12h apart respectively in squirrel, though 12 and 8h apart in rat. These findings in the present report could be a step towards underpinning the mechanisms regulating diurnality.Brain research 02/2011; 1373:39-47. · 2.46 Impact Factor