Characterization of an avianpox virus isolated from an Andean condor (Vultur gryphus).
ABSTRACT A novel pox virus, condorpox virus (CPV) isolated from the spleen of an Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) by inoculation of chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryos was compared biologically, antigenically and genetically with fowlpox virus (FPV), the type species of the genus Avipoxvirus. Susceptible chickens inoculated with CPV developed only mild localized lesions but were not protected against subsequent challenge with FPV. Based on Western blotting, in addition to the presence of cross-reacting antigens, distinct differences in antigenic profiles of CPV and FPV were observed. Sequence analysis of a 4.5 kb HindIII fragment of CPV genomic DNA revealed the presence of eight co-linear genes corresponding to FPV open reading frame (ORF)193-198, 201 and 203. Interestingly, reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) sequences present in the genome of all FPV were absent in CPV. Although, the results of a phylogenic analysis suggested that CPV is a member of the genus Avipoxvirus, its unique antigenic, biologic and genetic characteristics distinguish it from FPV to be considered as a new member of this genus.
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ABSTRACT: Two strains of avian pox viruses were isolated from cutaneous lesions in Hawaiian crows (Corvus hawaiiensis) examined in 1994 and a third from a biopsy obtained in 1992 from an infected bird of the Apapane species (Himatione sanguinea) by inoculation of the chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of developing chicken embryos. The resulting proliferative CAM lesions contained eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies characteristic of pox virus infection. The pathogenicity of these three viruses in domestic chickens was mild as evidenced by the development of relatively minor lesions of short duration at the sites of inoculation. Their virulence in this host was similar to that of a fowlpox virus (FPV) vaccine strain and contrasted greatly with the ability of two field strains of FPV to produce extensive proliferative lesions. One of the Hawaiian crow pox virus isolates as well as the one originating from the Apapane species could be propagated in two secondary avian cell lines, QT-35 and LMH. A comparison of the restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of the genomes of the two cell line-adapted viruses, generated by EcoRI digestion, revealed a limited degree of similarity. Moreover, neither profile was comparable to those of the two field isolates of FPV, which were almost indistinguishable from each other. Thus, based on the genetic distinctness of the two Hawaiian bird viruses, they appear to represent different strains of avipoxvirus.Journal of wildlife diseases 05/2000; 36(2):225-30. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The genomes of a fowlpox and quailpox virus isolate were compared by restriction enzyme analysis using BamHI, EcoRI, and HindIII endonucleases. The genetic profiles of the two virus species were very distinct with fragments lacking similar electrophoretic mobilities. In contrast, the patterns of three quailpox virus isolates were very similar with a high proportion of co-migrating fragments. When the immunogenic proteins of two quailpox, three fowlpox, a juncopox, and a pigeonpox virus isolate were examined by immunoblotting, common as well as unique antigens were detected. The greatest disparity was between quailpox virus and the other three species which are genomically conserved. Therefore, on the basis of genetic as well as immunological analysis, quailpox virus is a distinct species of the genus Avipoxvirus.Archives of Virology 02/1989; 106(1-2):85-92. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fowlpox virus (FPV), a pathogen of poultry, can persist in desiccated scabs shed from infected hosts. Although the mechanisms which ensure virus survival are unknown, it is likely that some type of remedial action against environmentally induced damage is required. In this regard, we have identified an open reading frame (ORF) coding for a putative class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD)-photolyase in the genome of FPV. This enzyme repairs the UV light-induced formation of CPDs in DNA by using blue light as an energy source and thus could enhance the viability of FPV during its exposure to sunlight. Based on transcriptional analyses, the photolyase gene was found to be expressed late during the FPV replicative cycle. That the resultant protein retained DNA repair activity was demonstrated by the ability of the corresponding FPV ORF to complement functionally a photolyase-deficient Escherichia coli strain. Interestingly, insertional inactivation of the FPV photolyase gene did not impair the replication of such a genetically altered virus in cultured cells. However, greater sensitivity of this mutant than of the parental virus to UV light irradiation was evident when both were subsequently photoreactivated in the absence of host participation. Therefore, FPV appears to incorporate its photolyase into mature virions where the enzyme can promote their survival in the environment. Although expression of a homologous protein has been predicted for some chordopoxviruses, this report is the first to demonstrate that a poxvirus can utilize light to repair damage to its genome.Journal of Virology 03/2001; 75(4):1681-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor