Induction of control genes in intestinal gluconeogenesis is sequential during fasting and maximal in diabetes.
ABSTRACT We studied in rats the expression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis from glutamine and glycerol in the small intestine (SI) during fasting and diabetes. From Northern blot and enzymatic studies, we report that only phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity is induced at 24 h of fasting, whereas glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity is induced only from 48 h. Both genes then plateau, whereas glutaminase and glycerokinase strikingly rebound between 48 and 72 h. The two latter genes are fully expressed in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. From arteriovenous balance and isotopic techniques, we show that the SI does not release glucose at 24 h of fasting and that SI gluconeogenesis contributes to 35% of total glucose production in 72-h-fasted rats. The new findings are that 1) the SI can quantitatively account for up to one-third of glucose production in prolonged fasting; 2) the induction of PEPCK is not sufficient by itself to trigger SI gluconeogenesis; 3) G-6-Pase likely plays a crucial role in this process; and 4) glutaminase and glycerokinase may play a key potentiating role in the latest times of fasting and in diabetes.
Article: Link between intestinal CD36 ligand binding and satiety induced by a high protein diet in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CD36 is a ubiquitous membrane glycoprotein that binds long-chain fatty acids. The presence of a functional CD36 is required for the induction of satiety by a lipid load and its role as a lipid receptor driving cellular signal has recently been demonstrated. Our project aimed to further explore the role of intestinal CD36 in the regulation of food intake. Duodenal infusions of vehicle or sulfo-N-succinimidyl-oleate (SSO) was performed prior to acute infusions of saline or Intralipid (IL) in mice. Infusion of minute quantities of IL induced a decrease in food intake (FI) compared to saline. Infusion of SSO had the same effect but no additive inhibitory effect was observed in presence of IL. No IL- or SSO-mediated satiety occurred in CD36-null mice. To determine whether the CD36-mediated hypophagic effect of lipids was maintained in animals fed a satietogen diet, mice were subjected to a High-Protein diet (HPD). Concomitantly with the satiety effect, a rise in intestinal CD36 gene expression was observed. No satiety effect occurred in CD36-null mice. HPD-fed WT mice showed a diminished FI compared to control mice, after saline duodenal infusion. But there was no further decrease after lipid infusion. The lipid-induced decrease in FI observed on control mice was accompanied by a rise in jejunal oleylethanolamide (OEA). Its level was higher in HPD-fed mice than in controls after saline infusion and was not changed by lipids. Overall, we demonstrate that lipid binding to intestinal CD36 is sufficient to produce a satiety effect. Moreover, it could participate in the satiety effect induced by HPD. Intestine can modulate FI by several mechanisms including an increase in OEA production and CD36 gene expression. Furthermore, intestine of mice adapted to HPD have a diminished capacity to modulate their food intake in response to dietary lipids.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30686. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The gut is a major energy consumer, but a comprehensive overview of the adaptive response to fasting is lacking. Gene-expression profiling, pathway analysis, and immunohistochemistry were therefore carried out on mouse small intestine after 0, 12, 24, and 72 hours of fasting. Intestinal weight declined to 50% of control, but this loss of tissue mass was distributed proportionally among the gut's structural components, so that the microarrays' tissue base remained unaffected. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the microarrays revealed that the successive time points separated into distinct branches. Pathway analysis depicted a pronounced, but transient early response that peaked at 12 hours, and a late response that became progressively more pronounced with continued fasting. Early changes in gene expression were compatible with a cellular deficiency in glutamine, and metabolic adaptations directed at glutamine conservation, inhibition of pyruvate oxidation, stimulation of glutamate catabolism via aspartate and phosphoenolpyruvate to lactate, and enhanced fatty-acid oxidation and ketone-body synthesis. In addition, the expression of key genes involved in cell cycling and apoptosis was suppressed. At 24 hours of fasting, many of the early adaptive changes abated. Major changes upon continued fasting implied the production of glucose rather than lactate from carbohydrate backbones, a downregulation of fatty-acid oxidation and a very strong downregulation of the electron-transport chain. Cell cycling and apoptosis remained suppressed. The changes in gene expression indicate that the small intestine rapidly looses mass during fasting to generate lactate or glucose and ketone bodies. Meanwhile, intestinal architecture is maintained by downregulation of cell turnover.BMC Genomics 02/2007; 8:361. · 4.07 Impact Factor