Relations between Continuous Performance Test performance measures and ADHD behaviors.
ABSTRACT The Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) is a neuropsychological task that has repeatedly been shown to differentiate ADHD from normal groups. Several variables may be derived from the Conners' CPT including errors of omission and commission, mean hit reaction time(RT), mean hit RT standard error, d', and beta. What each CPT parameter actually assesses has largely been based upon clinical assumptions and the face validity of each measure (e.g., omission errors measure inattention, commission errors measure impulsivity). This study attempts to examine relations between various CPT variables and phenotypic behaviors so as to better understand the various CPT variables. An epidemiological sample of 817 children was administered the Conners' CPT. Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to determine ADHD symptom profiles for all children. Children diagnosed with ADHD had more variable RTs, made more errors of commission and omission, and demonstrated poorer perceptual sensitivity than nondiagnosed children. Regarding specific symptoms, generalized estimating equations (GEE) and ANCOVAs were conducted to determine specific relationships between the 18 DSM-IV ADHD symptoms and 6 CPT parameters. CPT performance measures demonstrated significant relationships to ADHD symptoms but did not demonstrate symptom domain specificity according to a priori assumptions. Overall performance on the two signal detection measures, d' and beta, was highly related to all ADHD symptoms across symptom domains. Further, increased variability in RTs over time was related to most ADHD symptoms. Finally, it appears that at least 1 CPT variable, mean hit RT, is minimally related to ADHD symptoms as a whole, but does demonstrate some specificity in its link with symptoms of hyperactivity.
- Psychological Bulletin 06/1987; 101(3):443-63. · 15.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An important question in the attempt to generalize laboratory findings on attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children to clinical issues concerning their assessment, diagnosis, outcome, and treatment response is the ecological validity of the commonly used tasks and analogue behavioral observation procedures. This paper examines the concept of ecological validity and issues inherent in its evaluation. The evidence from a variety of sources is then reviewed on the relationship between laboratory methods of assessing inattention, impulsivity, and overactivity and measures of these same constructs in natural settings. Additional findings pertaining to this issue from a recent study of 140 ADHD and normal children and 159 ADHD and normal adolescents using a multimethod battery of tests are also reported. In general, the ecological validity of most methods is of a low to moderate degree, with some traditional laboratory tasks proving unsatisfactory. A few tasks demonstrated acceptable degrees of ecological validity but even these require improvement. It is concluded that future advances in ecological validity are likely to come from: (a) a greater reliance on assessments of the target behaviors in natural settings and (b) combining several of the more promising tasks and analogue methods into a battery that is taken over longer time intervals than has been customary and averaged across repeated administrations.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 05/1991; 19(2):149-78. · 3.09 Impact Factor
- Clinical Neuropsychologist - CLIN NEUROPSYCHOL. 01/1998; 12(2):155-168.