Article

Relations between Continuous Performance Test performance measures and ADHD behaviors.

Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.09). 11/2003; 31(5):543-54. DOI: 10.1023/A:1025405216339
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) is a neuropsychological task that has repeatedly been shown to differentiate ADHD from normal groups. Several variables may be derived from the Conners' CPT including errors of omission and commission, mean hit reaction time(RT), mean hit RT standard error, d', and beta. What each CPT parameter actually assesses has largely been based upon clinical assumptions and the face validity of each measure (e.g., omission errors measure inattention, commission errors measure impulsivity). This study attempts to examine relations between various CPT variables and phenotypic behaviors so as to better understand the various CPT variables. An epidemiological sample of 817 children was administered the Conners' CPT. Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to determine ADHD symptom profiles for all children. Children diagnosed with ADHD had more variable RTs, made more errors of commission and omission, and demonstrated poorer perceptual sensitivity than nondiagnosed children. Regarding specific symptoms, generalized estimating equations (GEE) and ANCOVAs were conducted to determine specific relationships between the 18 DSM-IV ADHD symptoms and 6 CPT parameters. CPT performance measures demonstrated significant relationships to ADHD symptoms but did not demonstrate symptom domain specificity according to a priori assumptions. Overall performance on the two signal detection measures, d' and beta, was highly related to all ADHD symptoms across symptom domains. Further, increased variability in RTs over time was related to most ADHD symptoms. Finally, it appears that at least 1 CPT variable, mean hit RT, is minimally related to ADHD symptoms as a whole, but does demonstrate some specificity in its link with symptoms of hyperactivity.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
126 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity is a widely studied personality trait and research construct that has been implicated as a risk factor for substance use, including initiating and continuing use. However, relatively few studies have examined impulsivity as a predictor of treatment outcome. Because impulsivity has been operationalised in many different ways, cross-comparisons of empirical studies have been difficult. The PubMed database was searched in September 2013. Reference lists of papers retrieved from this search were also manually scanned for additional resources. Studies were included if they presented data that assessed impulsivity as a predictor of treatment outcomes. The body of literature reviewed in this paper suggests that higher pretreatment impulsivity, regardless of how it is measured, usually is associated with poorer treatment outcomes. Recent data indicate that some psychosocial and pharmacological treatments may directly impact impulsivity and thus represent an interesting avenue for further research. Impulsivity appears to be a key predictor of substance use treatment outcomes and warrants more attention in the improvement of treatment outcomes. Suggestions for future research on the role of impulsivity in substance use treatment are provided. [Amy M. Loree AM, Leslie H. Lundahl LH, David M. Ledgerwood DM. Impulsivity as a predictor of treatment outcome in substance use disorders: Review and synthesis. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014].
    Drug and Alcohol Review 03/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Though the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA + Plus) is commonly used by researchers and clinicians, few investigations have assessed its convergent and discriminant validity, especially with regard to its use with children. The present study details correlates of the IVA + Plus using measures of cognitive ability and ratings of child behavior (parent and teacher), drawing upon a sample of 90 psychoeducational evaluations. Scores from the IVA + Plus correlated significantly with the Working Memory and Processing Speed Indexes from the Fourth Edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), though fewer and weaker significant correlations were seen with behavior ratings scales, and significant associations also occurred with WISC-IV Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning. The overall pattern of relations is supportive of the validity of the IVA + Plus; however, general cognitive ability was associated with better performance on most of the primary scores of the IVA + Plus, suggesting that interpretation should take intelligence into account.
    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 03/2014; · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer survivors often experience cognitive difficulties after treatment completion. Although chemotherapy enhances risk for cognitive problems, it is likely only one piece of a complex puzzle that explains survivors' cognitive functioning. Loneliness may be one psychosocial risk factor. The current studies included both subjective and objective cognitive measures and tested whether lonelier breast cancer survivors would have more concentration and memory complaints and experience more concentration difficulties than their less lonely counterparts. The relationship between loneliness and cognitive function was tested among three samples of breast cancer survivors. Study 1 was a sample of breast cancer survivors (n = 200) who reported their concentration and memory problems. Study 2a was a sample of breast cancer survivors (n = 185) and noncancer controls (n = 93) who reported their concentration and memory problems. Study 2b was a subsample of Study 2a breast cancer survivors (n = 22) and noncancer controls (n = 21) who completed a standardized neuropsychological test assessing concentration. Studies 1 and 2a revealed that lonelier women reported more concentration and memory problems than less lonely women. Study 2b utilized a standardized neuropsychological continuous performance test and demonstrated that lonelier women experienced more concentration problems than their less lonely counterparts. These studies demonstrated that loneliness is linked to concentration and memory complaints and the experience of concentration problems among breast cancer survivors. The results were also highly consistent across three samples of breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that loneliness may be a risk factor for cognitive difficulties among cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Psycho-Oncology 04/2014; · 3.51 Impact Factor