Increased physical activity decreases periodontitis risk in men

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
European Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.34). 02/2003; 18(9):891-8. DOI: 10.1023/A:1025622815579
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Increased physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, and may therefore affect incidence of periodontitis.
We studied the association of physical activity, walking and periodontitis in 39,461 male, US based, health professionals, 40-75 years old at baseline, more than half of whom were dentists, being followed up continuously since 1986. Participants were free of periodontitis, coronary heart disease and stroke at the start of follow-up. Physical activity and periodontitis were measured by validated questionnaires (expressed in metabolic equivalents--METs); the first report of professionally diagnosed periodontitis was considered a case.
Periodontitis risk decreased by 3% for every 10-MET increase in average physical activity after adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes, BMI, alcohol consumption and total calories (RR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). The inverse trend remained significant in the categorical analysis. Compared to men in the lowest quintile of physical activity, those in the highest quintile had a 13% lower risk of periodontitis (RR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-1.01, p-value, test for trend = 0.02). In a sub-sample of men with radiographs (n = 137) the physically active had less average bone loss (beta = -0.29, p-value = 0.03) after multivariate adjustment compared to those inactive.
In this large-scale prospective study, we found an inverse, linear association between sustained physical activity and periodontitis independent of known risk factors. The benefits of a physically active lifestyle may extend to periodontal health.

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    • "Clinical and epidemiological evidence reveals an association between chronic periodontitis and a number of systemic conditions, most notably diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [8, 9]; these associations are likely to be mediated by common pathogenic pathways [10, 11]. There is also evidence from a number of cross-sectional studies for an association between periodontitis and obesity [12] and some suggestion of an inverse relationship between sustained physical activity and periodontitis [13], although there is a recognised need for prospective cohort studies to firmly establish the clinical and pathogenic associations between these conditions [8]. Thus, an ageing population making poor diet and lifestyle choices is increasing the healthcare burden of periodontitis worldwide. "
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    ABSTRACT: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the tissues that surround and support the teeth and is initiated by inappropriate and excessive immune responses to bacteria in subgingival dental plaque leading to loss of the integrity of the periodontium, compromised tooth function, and eventually tooth loss. Periodontitis is an economically important disease as it is time-consuming and expensive to treat. Periodontitis has a worldwide prevalence of 5-15% and the prevalence of severe disease in western populations has increased in recent decades. Furthermore, periodontitis is more common in smokers, in obesity, in people with diabetes, and in heart disease patients although the pathogenic processes underpinning these links are, as yet, poorly understood. Diagnosis and monitoring of periodontitis rely on traditional clinical examinations which are inadequate to predict patient susceptibility, disease activity, and response to treatment. Studies of the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis and analysis of mediators in saliva have allowed the identification of many potentially useful biomarkers. Convenient measurement of these biomarkers using chairside analytical devices could form the basis for diagnostic tests which will aid the clinician and the patient in periodontitis management; this review will summarise this field and will identify the experimental, technical, and clinical issues that remain to be addressed before such tests can be implemented.
    04/2014; 2014:593151. DOI:10.1155/2014/593151
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    • "Thus, it has been proposed that the practice of Tai Chi could prevent and control chronic, degenerative diseases that occur with age [7, 8, 34, 35]. Additionally, it has been observed that the regular practice of physical exercise has been linked to a significantly lower frequency of periodontal disease in adult subjects [36–39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Tai Chi on biological markers of oxidative stress in saliva and its relationship with periodontal disease (PD) in older adults. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with a sample of 71 sedentary volunteers with PD who were divided into a control group of 34 subjects and an experimental group of 37 subjects who performed Tai Chi 5 days a week for a period of 6 months. PD status was characterized using the Periodontal Disease Index (PDI). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS), and TBARS levels of both groups were measured by spectrophotometric methods. In addition, inflammation markers (TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) were measured by flow cytometry. We found a statistically significant increase in SOD activity (P < 0.001) and TAS concentration (P < 0.05), whereas levels of IL-1 β were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Likewise, a statistically significant decrease in the PDI (P < 0.05) was observed in subjects who performed Tai Chi during a period of 6 months. Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that are linked to the improvement of PD in older adults.
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 03/2014; 2014(4):603853. DOI:10.1155/2014/603853 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "ed as the main confounding factor for the observed association between CRF and periodontal dis - ease severity in the present study , because both variables showed a few interdependent associations . For example , several studies showed an independent association between low levels of physical activity and an increased frequency of periodontitis ( Merchant et al . 2003 , Al - Zahrani et al . 2005 , Bawadi et al . 2011 ) . Of importance is that improved oral hygiene , which someone might sug - gest be associated with increased physical activity , did not necessarily account for lower frequencies of periodontal disease ( Bawadi et al . 2011 ) . The link between physical activity and periodontitis is an "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between periodontal disease severity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in a cross-sectional study of sedentary men. Seventy-two healthy men (45 to 65 years) who did not join any sport activity and had a preferentially sitting working position were recruited. Periodontal status was recorded and CRF was measured by peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ) during exercise testing on a cycle ergometer. Physical activity was assessed by a validated questionnaire and data were transformed to metabolic equivalent of task scores. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate associations. Differences between VO2peak levels in subjects with no or mild, moderate or severe periodontitis were statistically significant (p=0.026). Individuals with low VO2peak values showed high BMI scores, high concentrations of hsCRP, low levels of HDL-cholesterol, and used more glucocorticoids compared to individuals with high VO2peak levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that high age (p=0.090), high BMI scores (p<0.001), low levels of physical activity (p=0.031), and moderate (p=0.087), respectively severe periodontitis (p=0.033) were significantly associated with low VO2peak levels. The present study demonstrated that moderate and severe periodontitis were independently associated with low levels of CRF in sedentary men aged between 45 and 65 years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 10/2013; 41(1). DOI:10.1111/jcpe.12183 · 4.01 Impact Factor
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