Increased physical activity decreases periodontitis risk in men.
ABSTRACT Increased physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, and may therefore affect incidence of periodontitis.
We studied the association of physical activity, walking and periodontitis in 39,461 male, US based, health professionals, 40-75 years old at baseline, more than half of whom were dentists, being followed up continuously since 1986. Participants were free of periodontitis, coronary heart disease and stroke at the start of follow-up. Physical activity and periodontitis were measured by validated questionnaires (expressed in metabolic equivalents--METs); the first report of professionally diagnosed periodontitis was considered a case.
Periodontitis risk decreased by 3% for every 10-MET increase in average physical activity after adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes, BMI, alcohol consumption and total calories (RR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). The inverse trend remained significant in the categorical analysis. Compared to men in the lowest quintile of physical activity, those in the highest quintile had a 13% lower risk of periodontitis (RR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-1.01, p-value, test for trend = 0.02). In a sub-sample of men with radiographs (n = 137) the physically active had less average bone loss (beta = -0.29, p-value = 0.03) after multivariate adjustment compared to those inactive.
In this large-scale prospective study, we found an inverse, linear association between sustained physical activity and periodontitis independent of known risk factors. The benefits of a physically active lifestyle may extend to periodontal health.
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ABSTRACT: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the tissues that surround and support the teeth and is initiated by inappropriate and excessive immune responses to bacteria in subgingival dental plaque leading to loss of the integrity of the periodontium, compromised tooth function, and eventually tooth loss. Periodontitis is an economically important disease as it is time-consuming and expensive to treat. Periodontitis has a worldwide prevalence of 5-15% and the prevalence of severe disease in western populations has increased in recent decades. Furthermore, periodontitis is more common in smokers, in obesity, in people with diabetes, and in heart disease patients although the pathogenic processes underpinning these links are, as yet, poorly understood. Diagnosis and monitoring of periodontitis rely on traditional clinical examinations which are inadequate to predict patient susceptibility, disease activity, and response to treatment. Studies of the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis and analysis of mediators in saliva have allowed the identification of many potentially useful biomarkers. Convenient measurement of these biomarkers using chairside analytical devices could form the basis for diagnostic tests which will aid the clinician and the patient in periodontitis management; this review will summarise this field and will identify the experimental, technical, and clinical issues that remain to be addressed before such tests can be implemented.04/2014; 2014:593151. DOI:10.1155/2014/593151
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ABSTRACT: The non-antimicrobial properties of tetracyclines such as anti-inflammatory, proanabolic and anti-catabolic actions make them effective pharmaceuticals for the adjunctive management of chronic inflammatory diseases. An over-exuberant inflammatory response to an antigenic trigger in periodontitis and other chronic inflammatory diseases could contribute to an autoimmune element in disease progression. Their adjunctive use in managing periodontitis could have beneficial effects in curbing excessive inflammatory loading from commonly associated comorbidities such as CHD, DM and arthritis. Actions of tetracyclines and their derivatives include interactions with MMPs, tissue inhibitors of MMPs, growth factors and cytokines. They affect the sequence of inflammation with implications on immunomodulation, cell proliferation and angiogenesis; these actions enhance their scope, in treating a range of disease entities. Non-antimicrobial chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) sustain their diverse actions in organ systems which include anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-proteolytic actions, inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. A spectrum of biological actions in dermatitis, periodontitis, atherosclerosis, diabetes, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, malignancy and prevention of bone resorption is particularly relevant to minocycline. Experimental models of ischemia indicate their specific beneficial effects. Parallel molecules with similar functions, improved Zn binding and solubility have been developed for reducing excessive MMP activity. Curbing excessive MMP activity is particularly relevant to periodontitis, and comorbidities addressed here, where specificity is paramount. Unique actions of tetracyclines in a milieu of excessive inflammatory stimuli make them effective therapeutic adjuncts in the management of chronic inflammatory disorders. These beneficial actions of tetracyclines are relevant to the adjunctive management of periodontitis subjects presenting with commonly prevalent comorbidities addressed here.The Open Dentistry Journal 06/2014; 8(1):109-24. DOI:10.2174/1874210601408010109
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ABSTRACT: Background: Physical inactivity has been associated with poor oral health. The aim of this study was to assess whether or not periodontal disease is a risk indicator for poor physical fitness. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 111 men who performed a physical fitness test (PFT) composed of four exercises: (1) push-ups conducted by pushing the body up and lowering it down using the arms; (2) pull-ups with the body suspended by the arms gripped on a bar; (3) sit-ups lifting the upper and lower vertebrae from the floor; and (4) running for 12 minutes. A PFT score (range: 1-300) was determined for each participant, with higher scores indicating better physical fitness. One periodontist assessed attachment loss (AL) and probing depth (PD). Physical fitness was dichotomized according to whether the highest PFT score was "achieved" or "not achieved". Multivariable logistic models were fitted adjusting for age, overweight (body mass index 25-29.9 km/m(2)), and frequency of daily exercise. Results: Mean age of the sample was 34.8±10.3 years. Overweight individuals demonstrated significantly lower PFT scores (276.9 ± 24.1 points) than normal-weight individuals (289.3 ± 16.8 points). Individuals presenting ≥1 tooth with AL ≥ 4 mm had significantly lower PFT scores (277.8 ± 23.6 points) compared to those without this status (285.9 ± 20.2 points). A 1-mm increment in PD or AL significantly decreased the chance of reaching the highest PFT score by 69% or 75%, respectively. Conclusion: Periodontal disease may be considered a risk indicator for poor physical fitness in men.Journal of Periodontology 08/2014; 86(1):1-12. DOI:10.1902/jop.2014.140270 · 2.57 Impact Factor