Islet cell autoantibodies are early markers for type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether islet autoantibodies were present at birth in young adults who developed type 1 diabetes at 15-30 years of age. Cord blood sera from 30 patients who developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age and sera from 320 randomly selected control children were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA) by indirect immunofluorescence and autoantibodies against the 65 kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), islet cell antigen-2 (IA-2A) and insulin (IAA) by radiobinding assays. The young adults who developed type 1 diabetes did not differ from controls in the cord blood prevalence of any of the four islet autoantibodies. This is in contrast to our previous findings that children who developed type 1 diabetes below 15 years of age had an increased prevalence of cord blood islet autoantibodies. Our present data suggest that, in contrast to children, pre- and perinatal risk factors are less likely to be involved in the development of type 1 diabetes in young adults.
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"We have previously reported that
cord blood islet autoantibodies did not affect the risk for type 1 diabetes in 15–30-year-old
subjects . Therefore, in this study, we
examined whether intrauterine exposure to enterovirus infection in the 15–30-year-old ages
was associated with an increased risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes,
also with particular reference to possible gender difference. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy may increase the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gestational enterovirus infections increase the offspring's risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. Serum samples from 30 mothers without diabetes whose offspring developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age were analyzed for enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and enterovirus genome (RNA), and compared to a control group. Among the index mothers, 9/30 (30%) were enterovirus IgM-positive, and none was positive for enterovirus RNA. In the control group, 14/90 (16%) were enterovirus IgM-positive, and 4/90 (4%) were positive for enterovirus RNA (n.s.). Boys of enterovirus IgM-positive mothers had approximately 5 times greater risk of developing diabetes (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.22-17.6), as compared to boys of IgM-negative mothers (P < .025). These results suggest that gestational enterovirus infections may be related to the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes in adolescence and young adulthood.
Experimental Diabetes Research 07/2008; 2008:271958. DOI:10.1155/2008/271958 · 4.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) may be triggered pre- or perinatally by multiple factors. Identifying new predisposing T1D markers or combinations of markers in a large, well-characterised case-control collection may be important for future T1D prevention. The present work describes the design and feasibility of a large and unselected case-control study, which will define and evaluate prediction criteria for T1D at the time of birth. Danish registries (Biological Specimen Bank for Neonatal Screening, and the National Discharge Registry) made it possible to identify and collect dried blood spots (DBS) from newborns who later developed T1D (cases) born 1981-2002. DBS samples from 2086 cases and two matching control subjects per case were analysed for genetic and immune factors that are associated with T1D: (a) candidate genes (HLA, INS and CTLA4), (b) cytokines and inflammatory markers, (c) islet auto-antibodies (GAD65A, IA-2A). The objective of the study was to define reliable prediction tools for T1D using samples available at the time of birth. In a unique approach, the study linked a large unselected and population-based sample resource to well-ascertained clinical databases and advanced technology. It combined genetic, immunological and demographic data to develop prediction algorithms. It also provided a resource for future studies in which new genetic markers can be included as they are identified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human leukocyte antigen DQ (HLA-DQ) genetic factors and islet autoantibodies are strongly associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and are currently used to predict T1D. This study examined whether islet autoantibodies in the cord blood of newborns to nondiabetic mothers were associated with the (T1D) high-risk genotype HLA-DQ2/8, gestational infections or both.
Cord blood samples were taken from 33 683 newborns and used for HLA typing and analyses of islet autoantibodies. Parents completed questionnaires when the child was 2 months of age.
The prevalence of newborn islet autoantibodies consistently varied with season over 4 years (P<0.0001); lowest in first quarter (1.2%) and highest in third (2.4%). Cord blood islet autoantibodies were associated with HLA-DQ2/8 in the second (OR, 2.30; P=0.02), third (OR, 2.12; P=0.008) and fourth quarters (OR, 2.49; P=0.007), but not in the first (OR, 1.13). Reported gastroenteritis was additionally associated with islet autoantibodies in the third quarter (OR, 1.80, P=0.04).
An association between HLA and islet autoimmunity may depend on environmental exposure during pregnancy. Follow-up of mothers and children will determine risk of T1D.
Journal of Perinatology 03/2008; 28(3):211-7. DOI:10.1038/sj.jp.7211912 · 2.07 Impact Factor