Islet cell autoantibodies are early markers for type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether islet autoantibodies were present at birth in young adults who developed type 1 diabetes at 15-30 years of age. Cord blood sera from 30 patients who developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age and sera from 320 randomly selected control children were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA) by indirect immunofluorescence and autoantibodies against the 65 kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), islet cell antigen-2 (IA-2A) and insulin (IAA) by radiobinding assays. The young adults who developed type 1 diabetes did not differ from controls in the cord blood prevalence of any of the four islet autoantibodies. This is in contrast to our previous findings that children who developed type 1 diabetes below 15 years of age had an increased prevalence of cord blood islet autoantibodies. Our present data suggest that, in contrast to children, pre- and perinatal risk factors are less likely to be involved in the development of type 1 diabetes in young adults.
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"We have previously reported that
cord blood islet autoantibodies did not affect the risk for type 1 diabetes in 15–30-year-old
subjects . Therefore, in this study, we
examined whether intrauterine exposure to enterovirus infection in the 15–30-year-old ages
was associated with an increased risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes,
also with particular reference to possible gender difference. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy may increase the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gestational enterovirus infections increase the offspring's risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. Serum samples from 30 mothers without diabetes whose offspring developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age were analyzed for enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and enterovirus genome (RNA), and compared to a control group. Among the index mothers, 9/30 (30%) were enterovirus IgM-positive, and none was positive for enterovirus RNA. In the control group, 14/90 (16%) were enterovirus IgM-positive, and 4/90 (4%) were positive for enterovirus RNA (n.s.). Boys of enterovirus IgM-positive mothers had approximately 5 times greater risk of developing diabetes (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.22-17.6), as compared to boys of IgM-negative mothers (P < .025). These results suggest that gestational enterovirus infections may be related to the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes in adolescence and young adulthood.
Experimental Diabetes Research 07/2008; 2008:271958. DOI:10.1155/2008/271958 · 4.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune type 1 diabetes is strongly associated with a number of immune abnormalities that manifest themselves before and at the time of clinical diagnosis. The clinical onset is associated with a major loss of the pancreatic islet beta cells. Insulin treatment is the only treatment option since numerous trials with agents that suppress or modulate immune function have failed to preserve beta cell function long term. Recent studies suggest that it is possible to predict clinical onset of diabetes by combining genetic with autoantibody testing. In this review we will summarize current and future drug targets for subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes as well as for subjects with recent onset disease. We will also discuss the possible importance of initiating as well as contributing factors such as reactive oxygen species and modified autoantigens. It is speculated that drug targets of factors important to disease pathogenesis may provide safe and effective adductive treatment to preserve beta cell function in autoantibody positive subjects who are at maximum risk for disease.
Endocrine Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets(Formerly Current Drug Targets - Immune Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders) 04/2006; 6(1):103-24. DOI:10.2174/187153006776056576
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The GAD65 epitope immunoglobulin binding pattern in cord blood of children (n=37), who later developed type 1 diabetes at 3.2-14.9 years of age, was analyzed. First, the binding at diagnosis was compared with that in the cord blood serum. The next comparison was between the cord blood serum and the mothers' serum taken at delivery. Basal GAD65 binding levels were determined in Protein A Sepharose-based radiobinding assays with (35)S-labeled human and rat GAD65, rat GAD67 and GAD65/67 fusion proteins representing N-terminal (N), middle (M) and C-terminal (C) epitopes. In the first comparison, 28/37 children had GAD65 binding above 2.44 relative units (RU) (upper three quartiles), representing a marked increase from birth in the binding to human GAD65 (p<0.0001), rat GAD65 (p<0.0001), N- (p=0.04), M- (p<0.0001), C- (p=0.001), and M + C-epitopes (p<0.0001), but not to rat GAD67. At birth, 9/37 had GAD65 binding above 1.56 RU (upper quartile) demonstrating that their binding of human (35)S-GAD65 was higher in cord blood than in the mother (p=0.008). Higher cord blood binding was also observed for the N- (p=0.02) terminal epitope but not for rat GAD65, rat GAD67, and the remaining epitopes. These data suggest that differences in the epitope GAD65 binding between mother and child at birth are limited. In contrast, the epitope pattern at diagnosis differed from that at birth, supporting the view that disease-associated epitopes develop between birth and diagnosis.
Hormone and Metabolic Research 11/2007; 39(11):790-6. DOI:10.1055/s-2007-992128 · 2.12 Impact Factor