Retention of a duplicate gene through changes in subcellular targeting: an electron transport protein homologue localizes to the golgi.
ABSTRACT Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme complex of the electron transport chain, contains 13 subunits, 3 encoded by mitochondrial DNA and 10 by nuclear. Several of the nuclear subunits, including subunit VIIa, are known to have two tissue- and development-specific isoforms in mammals. A recently identified third member of the gene family, COX7AR, encodes a protein previously thought to function in mitochondria. However, observation of fluorescent pCOX7AR C-terminal fusion proteins in HeLa cells showed that pCOX7AR is localized to the Golgi apparatus. Sequence analyses indicate that the duplication of COX7AR occurred prior to the origin of the Euteleostomi (bony vertebrates) and that pCOX7AR is more highly conserved than the two other isoforms. These results indicate that, after gene duplication and modification of the mitochondrial targeting signal, pCOX7AR was evolutionarily altered to a new and apparently important function in the Golgi. These results also suggest that predictions of function from homology can be misleading and show that specialization and modification of subcellular localization are similar to cis-element subfunctionalization. In cis-element subfunctionalization, complementary null mutations occur to the cis-elements of the descendents of a gene duplication, causing both descendent genes to be obligate. In the process described in this paper, which could be termed subcellular subfunctionalization, complementary null mutations can occur to the subcellular localization signals of the descendants of a gene duplication, causing both descendent genes to be similarly obligate. Noncomplementary null mutations could also uncover an alternate localization, which is the more likely case for pCOX7AR.
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ABSTRACT: Vertebrate mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) possesses 10 nuclear-encoded subunits. Six subunits have paralogs in mammals, but the origins and distribution of isoforms among vertebrates have not been analyzed. We used Bayesian phylogenetic analysis to interpret the origins of each subunit, inferring the roles of gene and genome duplications. The paralogous ancestries of five genes were identical throughout the major vertebrate taxa: no paralogs of COX6c and COX7c, two paralogs of COX4 and COX6a, and three paralogs of COX7a. Two genes had an extra copy in teleosts (COX5a, COX5b), and three genes had additional copies in mammals (COX6b, COX7b, COX8). Focusing on early vertebrates, we examined structural divergence and explored transcriptional profiles across zebrafish tissues. Quantitative transcript profiles revealed dramatic differences in transcript abundance for different subunits. COX7b and COX4 transcripts were typically present at very low levels, whereas COX5a and COX8 were in vast excess in all tissues. For genes with paralogs, two general patterns emerged. For COX5a and COX8, there was ubiquitous expression of one paralog, with the other paralog in lower abundance in all tissues. COX4 and COX6a shared a distinct expression pattern, with one paralog dominant in brain and gills and the other in muscles. The isoform profiles in combination with phylogenetic analyses show that vertebrate COX isoform patterns are consistent with the hypothesis that early whole genome duplications in basal vertebrates governed the isoform repertoire in modern fish and tetrapods, though more recent lineage-specific gene/genome duplications also play a role in select subunits.Physiological Genomics 03/2010; 42(1):76-84. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several cyclic processes take place within a single organism. For example, the cell cycle is coordinated with the 24 h diurnal rhythm in animals and plants, and with the 40 min ultradian rhythm in budding yeast. To examine the evolution of periodic gene expression during these processes, we performed the first systematic comparison in three organisms (Homo sapiens, Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) by using public microarray data. We observed that although diurnal-regulated and ultradian-regulated genes are not generally cell-cycle-regulated, they tend to have cell-cycle-regulated paralogues. Thus, diverged temporal expression of paralogues seems to facilitate cellular orchestration under different periodic stimuli. Lineage-specific functional repertoires of periodic-associated paralogues imply that this mode of regulation might have evolved independently in several organisms.EMBO Reports 02/2010; 11(3):233-8. · 7.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aging decreases oxidative phosphorylation through cytochrome oxidase (COX) in cardiac interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) in 24-month old (aged) rats compared to 6-month old adult Fischer 344 rats, whereas subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) located beneath the plasma membrane remain unaffected. Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) reveals in aged rats a 25% reduction in cardiac COX subunit VIIa in cardiac IFM, but not in SSM. In contrast, the content of subunit IV remains unchanged in both SSM and IFM, irrespective of age. These subunits are localized mainly on cristae membranes. In contrast, semi-quantitative immunoblotting, which detects denatured protein, indicates that the content of COX VIIa is similar in IFM and SSM from both aged and adult hearts. IEM provides a sensitive method for precise localizing and quantifying specific mitochondrial proteins. The lack of immunoreaction of COX VIIa subunit by IEM in aged IFM is not explained by a reduction in protein, but rather by a masking phenomenon or by an in situ change in protein structure affecting COX activity.The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 11/2011; 294(11):1825-33. · 1.34 Impact Factor