The goal of this manuscript is to provide a summary of the major techniques that currently are being applied to measure oxygenation of tissues in vivo. Oxygen is one of the key components of metabolism. Oxygen is also a major variable in many diseases, both with respect to the pathophysiological processes and influencing the efficacy of treatment. Unfortunately, however, the measurement of tissue oxygenation is non-trivial. Consequently many different methods have been developed to try to make this measurement. This paper presents a summary, largely in tabular form, of most of the current methods for assessing tissue oxygenation. The table attempts to cover the most pertinent aspects of the techniques and their applications, including their potential niche, limitations, and advantages. Citations are given for each method to point the reader in the direction of relevant literature.
"As a unique technique capable of detecting and imaging free radicals, electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) has achieved remarkable progress in a variety of applications in the fields of biology and medicine          . Despite its unique capability and specificity for free radical imaging, EPRI still has some technical limitations. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) technology has rapidly progressed in the last decade enabling many important applications in the fields of biology and medicine. At frequencies of 300-1200 MHz a range of in vivo applications have been performed. However, the requisite imaging time duration to acquire a given number of projections, limits the use of this technique in many in vivo applications where relatively rapid kinetics occur. Therefore, there has been a great need to develop approaches to accelerate EPRI data acquisition. We report the development of a fast low-frequency EPRI technique using spinning magnetic field gradients (SMFG). Utilizing a 300 MHz CW (continuous wave) EPRI system, SMFG enabled over 10-fold accelerated acquisition of image projections. 2D images with over 200 projections could be acquired in less than 3s and with 20s acquisitions good image quality was obtained on large aqueous free radical samples. This technique should be particularly useful for in vivo studies of free radicals and their metabolism.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance 07/2004; 168(2):220-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jmr.2004.02.012 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This thesis describes the implementation of novel approaches for measuring tissue oxygenation based on oxygen-dependent quenching of the triplet-state lifetime of porphyrins. Ultimately we created a tool for assessment of mitochondrial oxygen tension in vivo. The first measurements indicate much higher mitoPO2 values than generally expected. These findings come in an era of new insights in cellular oxygen sensing and oxygen-dependence of gene expression and metabolism. The described methods are expected to be a valuable addition to the arsenal of tools available to scientist for unraveling the mechanisms of oxygen delivery and consumption under various pathophysiological circumstances. Oxygen is again important, as it has always been …
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The technique of in vivo EPR spectroscopy can provide useful and even unique information pertinent to the study of oxygen/ nitrogen radicals and related processes. The parameters that can be measured include: (a) Oxygen centered radicals (by spin trapping); (b) carbon centered radicals (by spin trapping and sometimes by direct observation); (c) sulfur centered radicals (by spin trapping and sometimes by direct observation); (d) nitric oxide (by spin trapping); (e) oxygen (using oxygen sensitive paramagnetic materials); (f) redox state (using metabolism of nitroxides); (g) thiol groups (using special nitroxides); (h) pH (using special nitroxides); (h) perfusion (using washout of paramagnetic tracers); (i) some redox active metal ions (chromium, manganese). The current state of the art for these and other measurements is discussed, especially in relationship to experiments that are likely to be useful for studies of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species (RNS).
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