Palmitate potentiation of glucose-induced insulin release: a study using 2-bromopalmitate.
ABSTRACT The mechanisms whereby fatty acids (FA) potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cell are incompletely understood. In this study, the effects of palmitate on insulin secretion were investigated in isolated rat islets. Palmitate did not initiate insulin secretion at nonstimulatory glucose concentrations, but markedly stimulated insulin release at concentrations of glucose > or = 5.6 mmol/L. At concentrations of palmitate > or =0.5 mmol/L, the important determinant of the potency of the FA was its unbound concentration. At total concentrations < or = 0.5 mmol/L, both the total and unbound concentrations appeared important. Surprisingly, 2-bromopalmitate did not affect palmitate oxidation, but significantly diminished palmitate esterification into cellular lipids. Neither methyl palmitate, which is not activated into a long-chain acyl-CoA ester, nor 2-bromopalmitate affected glucose-stimulated insulin release. Further, 2-bromopalmitate partly inhibited the potentiating effect of palmitate. These results support the concept that FA potentiation of insulin release is mediated by FA-derived signals generated in the esterification pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Lowering of the elevated plasma FFA concentration in 18- 24-h fasted rats with nicotinic acid (NA) caused complete ablation of subsequent glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Although the effect of NA was reversed when the fasting level of total FFA was maintained by coinfusion of soybean oil or lard oil (plus heparin), the more saturated animal fat proved to be far more potent in enhancing GSIS. We therefore examined the influence of individual fatty acids on insulin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. When present in the perfusion fluid at 0.5 mM (in the context of 1% albumin), the fold stimulation of insulin release from the fasted pancreas in response to 12.5 mM glucose was as follows: octanoate (C8:0), 3.4; linoleate (C18:2 cis/cis), 5.3; oleate (C18:1 cis), 9.4; palmitate (C16:0), 16. 2; and stearate (C18:0), 21.0. The equivalent value for palmitoleate (C16:1 cis) was 3.1. A cis--> trans switch of the double bond in the C16:1 and C18:1 fatty acids had only a modest, if any, impact on their potency. A similar profile emerged with regard to basal insulin secretion (3 mM glucose). When a subset of these fatty acids was tested in pancreases from fed animals, the same rank order of effectiveness at both basal and stimulatory levels of glucose was seen. The findings reaffirm the essentiality of an elevated plasma FFA concentration for GSIS in the fasted rat. They also show, however, that the insulinotropic effect of individual fatty acids spans a remarkably broad range, increasing and decreasing dramatically with chain length and degree of unsaturation, respectively. Thus, for any given level of glucose, insulin secretion will be influenced greatly not only by the combined concentration of all circulating (unbound) FFA, but also by the makeup of this FFA pool. Both factors will likely be important considerations in understanding the complex interplay between the nature of dietary fat and whole body insulin, glucose, and lipid dynamics.Journal of Clinical Investigation 08/1997; 100(2):398-403. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The acute elevation of plasma free fatty acids to levels found during prolonged starvation by means of infusion of a triglyceride emulsion plus heparin in 5 dogs was associated with a 40 per cent decrease in plasma glucagon and a 33 per cent increase in serum insulin. This inhibitory feedback of free fatty acid on glucagon secretion and stimulatory feedback on insulin secretion very likely contribute to the smooth transition from carbohydrate to fat metabolism characteristic of prolonged starvation without the danger of progressive ketoacidosis.Metabolism 05/1968; 17(4):301-4. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: WY-14,643 [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)pyrimidinylthio-acetic acid] is a well-known non-genotoxic carcinogen and peroxisome proliferator that causes liver cancer in rodents by unknown mechanisms. Its ability to sustain elevated rates of hepatocyte DNA synthesis is most likely pivotal in the ultimate development of tumors. The source of this mitogenic stimulus following treatment of rats with WY-14,643 has been hypothesized to be Kupffer cells, the resident hepatic macrophages, since they are activated by peroxisome proliferators in vivo. Therefore, these studies were designed to determine if Kupffer cells are causally responsible for WY-14 643-induced increases in hepatocyte DNA synthesis in vivo. WY-14,643 (100 mg/kg) increased DNA synthesis 8-fold 24 h after treatment; however, inactivation of Kupffer cells with methyl palmitate, a nonhydrolyzable fatty acid ester and known Kupffer cell inhibitor, completely prevented the mitogenic effect of WY-14,643. On the other hand, the ability of WY-14,643 to induce peroxisomes was not affected by methyl palmitate. These data demonstrate that induction of peroxisomes is not dependent on factors from Kupffer cells and support the idea that stimulation of DNA synthesis and induction of peroxisomes occur via distinct mechanisms. Additionally, WY-14,643 increased liver mRNA transcripts of the hepatocyte mitogen tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) more than twofold. This increase was also prevented by inactivating Kupffer cells with methyl palmitate. Therefore, it is concluded that Kupffer cells are causally responsible for WY-14,643-induced increases in hepatocyte DNA synthesis most likely by increasing production of TNF alpha, a hepatic mitogen.Carcinogenesis 09/1997; 18(8):1453-6. · 5.64 Impact Factor