The mechanisms whereby fatty acids (FA) potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cell are incompletely understood. In this study, the effects of palmitate on insulin secretion were investigated in isolated rat islets. Palmitate did not initiate insulin secretion at nonstimulatory glucose concentrations, but markedly stimulated insulin release at concentrations of glucose > or = 5.6 mmol/L. At concentrations of palmitate > or =0.5 mmol/L, the important determinant of the potency of the FA was its unbound concentration. At total concentrations < or = 0.5 mmol/L, both the total and unbound concentrations appeared important. Surprisingly, 2-bromopalmitate did not affect palmitate oxidation, but significantly diminished palmitate esterification into cellular lipids. Neither methyl palmitate, which is not activated into a long-chain acyl-CoA ester, nor 2-bromopalmitate affected glucose-stimulated insulin release. Further, 2-bromopalmitate partly inhibited the potentiating effect of palmitate. These results support the concept that FA potentiation of insulin release is mediated by FA-derived signals generated in the esterification pathway.
"Replacement of palmitate acid with the non-metabolic FA 2-bromopalmitate (FAs-Br) markedly prevented the TGs accumulation observed after 18 hours (Figure 1D and 1E, right lower panel). 2-bromopalmitate is not esterified into neutral lipids and inhibits esterification of endogenous FAs  and therefore prevents TGs synthesis in the cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic gluconeogenesis tightly controls blood glucose levels in healthy individuals, yet disorders of fatty acids (FAs) oxidation are characterized by hypoglycemia. We studied the ability of free-FAs to directly inhibit gluconeogenesis, as a novel mechanism that elucidates the hypoglycemic effect of FAs oxidation defects.
Primary rat hepatocytes were pre-treated with FAs prior to gluconeogenic stimuli with glucagon or dexamethasone and cAMP.
Pre-treatment with 1 mM FAs (mixture of 2:1 oleate:palmitate) for 1 hour prior to gluconeogenic induction, significantly decreases the induced expression of the gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) as well as the induced glucose production by the cells. The inhibitory effect of FAs upon gluconeogenesis is abolished when pre-treatment is elongated to 18 hours, allowing clearance of FAs into triglycerides by the cells. Replacement of palmitate with the non-metabolic fatty acid 2-bromopalmitate inhibits esterification of FAs into triglycerides. Accordingly, the increased exposure to unesterified-FAs allows their inhibitory effect to be extended even when pre-treatment is elongated to 18 hours. Similar changes were caused by FAs to the induction of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) expression, indicating this transcriptional coactivator as the mediating link of the effect. This inhibitory effect of FAs upon gluconeogenic induction is shown to involve reduced activation of cAMP response element-binding (CREB) transcription factor.
The present results demonstrate that free-FAs directly inhibit the induced gluconeogenic response in hepatocytes. Hence, high levels of free-FAs may attenuate hepatic gluconeogenesis, and liver glucose output.
Lipids in Health and Disease 06/2012; 11(1):66. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-11-66 · 2.22 Impact Factor
"The agonist properties of partial agonists, such as 2BrP, will appear more pronounced in a recombinant system with higher receptor density (Kenakin 1997). We were also able to confirm earlier reports (Parker et al. 2003; Warnotte et al. 1994) showing that while 2BrP inhibits LA-stimulated insulin release in mouse islets, the LC-CoA synthetase inhibitor triacsin C was without effect. The fact that 2BrP not only appears as an inhibitor of FA-mediated insulin release but has now also been identified as an antagonist/partial agonist of FFA 1 R/GPR40 provides a pharmacological support for our view that FFA 1 R/GPR40 is an essential link in the mechanism underlying the FA-mediated potentiation of insulin secretion. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free fatty acids (FFA) have generally been proposed to regulate pancreatic insulin release by an intracellular mechanism involving inhibition of CPT-1. The recently de-orphanized G-protein coupled receptor, FFA(1)R/GPR40, has been shown to be essential for fatty-acid-stimulated insulin release in MIN6 mouse insulinoma cells. The CPT-1 inhibitor, 2-bromo palmitate (2BrP), was investigated for its ability to interact with mouse FFA(1)R/GPR40. It was found to inhibit phosphatidyl inositol hydrolysis induced by linoleic acid (LA) (100 muM in all experiments) in HEK293 cells transfected with FFA(1)R/GPR40 and in the MIN6 subclone, MIN6c4. 2BrP also inhibited LA-stimulated insulin release from mouse pancreatic islets. Mouse islets were subjected to antisense intervention by treatment with a FFA(1)R/GPR40-specific morpholino oligonucleotide for 48 h. Antisense treatment of islets suppressed LA-stimulated insulin release by 50% and by almost 100% when islets were pretreated with LA for 30 min before applying the antisense. Antisense treatment had no effect on tolbutamide-stimulated insulin release. Confocal microscopy using an FFA(1)R/GPR40-specific antibody revealed receptor expression largely localized to the plasma membrane of insulin-producing cells. Pretreating the islets with LA for 30 min followed by antisense oligonucleotide treatment for 48 h reduced the FFA(1)R/GPR40 immunoreactivity to background levels. The results demonstrate that FFA(1)R/GPR40 is inhibited by the CPT-1 inhibitor, 2BrP, and confirm that FFA(1)R/GPR40 is indeed necessary, at least in part, for fatty-acid-stimulated insulin release.
Cell and Tissue Research 12/2005; 322(2):207-15. DOI:10.1007/s00441-005-0017-z · 3.57 Impact Factor
"There is no evidence of a connection between palmitate and plasma glucose homeostasis . However, ourselves and others (Parker et al., 2003) have shown that that palmitate weakly stimulates insulin secretion, but this is only at concentrations as high as 1 mM (data not shown). An alternative possibility would be that the palmitate derivatised GLP-1 analogues have additional hyperglycaemic actions due to for example , stimulation of glucagon secretion. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) is released in response to ingested nutrients and acts to promote glucose-dependent insulin secretion ensuring efficient postprandial glucose homeostasis. Unfortunately, the beneficial actions of GLP-1 which give this hormone many of the desirable properties of an antidiabetic drug are short lived due to degradation by dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV) and rapid clearance by renal filtration. In this study we have attempted to extend GLP-1 action through the attachment of palmitoyl moieties to the epsilon-amino group in the side chain of the Lys26 residue and to combine this modification with substitutions of the Ala8 residue, namely Val or amino-butyric acid (Abu). In contrast to native GLP-1, which was rapidly degraded, [Lys(pal)26]GLP-1, [Abu8, Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 and [Val8 Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 all exhibited profound stability during 12 h incubations with DPP IV and human plasma. Receptor binding affinity and the ability to increase cyclic AMP in the clonal beta-cell line BRIN-BD11 were decreased by 86- to 167-fold and 15- to 62-fold, respectively compared with native GLP-1. However, insulin secretory potency tested using BRIN-BD11 cells was similar, or in the case of [Val8,Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 enhanced. Furthermore, when administered in vivo together with glucose to diabetic (ob/ob) mice, [Lys(pal)26]GLP-1, [Abu8,Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 and [Val8,Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 did not demonstrate acute glucose-lowering or insulinotropic activity as observed with native GLP-1. These studies support the potential usefulness of fatty acid linked analogues of GLP-1 but indicate the importance of chain length for peptide kinetics and bioavailability.
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