Pseudomonas aeruginosa expresses a lethal virulence determinant, the PA-I lectin/adhesin, in the intestinal tract of a stressed host: the role of epithelia cell contact and molecules of the Quorum Sensing Signaling System.
ABSTRACT We have previously demonstrated that P. aeruginosa can have profound effects on the intestinal epithelial barrier via one of its virulence factors, the PA-I lectin/adhesin. The aims of the present study were to further characterize the interaction of P. aeruginosa and the intestinal epithelium using both in vitro and in vivo approaches.
In vitro assays examining the effect of bacterial growth phase, epithelial cell contact, and butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), a quorum sensing signaling molecule know to affect various extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa, on PA-I expression in P. aeruginosa were performed. In vivo studies were carried out by modeling catabolic stress in mice using a 30% surgical hepatectomy and direct introduction of P. aeruginosa and various virulence components into the cecum. The effect of this model on PA-I expression in P. aeruginosa was determined.
Results demonstrated that PA-I expression in P. aeruginosa is affected by its phase of growth, its contact to the intestinal epithelium, and its exposure to the quorum sensing molecule, C4-HSL. Furthermore, data from the present study suggest that the PA-I lectin/adhesin of P. aeruginosa may be increased in vivo by local factors within the cecum of mice in response to surgical stress.
These data indicate that multiple factors present in the intestinal microenvironment of a stressed host may induce certain opportunistic pathogens to express key virulence factors leading to a state of lethal gut-derived sepsis.
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ABSTRACT: Human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers (Caco-2) subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation release soluble factors into the apical medium that activate the virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to express the potent barrier-dysregulating protein PA-I lectin/adhesin. In this study, we defined the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha in this response. We tested the ability of medium from Caco-2 cells with forced expression of HIF-1alpha to increase PA-I expression in P. aeruginosa and found that medium from Caco-2 cells overexpressing HIF-1alpha increased PA-I expression compared with medium from control cells (P < 0.001, ANOVA). To identify the components responsible for this response, medium was fractionated by molecular weight and subjected to mass spectroscopy, which identified adenosine as the possible mediator. Both adenosine and its immediate downstream metabolite inosine induced PA-I expression in P. aeruginosa in a dose-dependent fashion. Because inosine was not detectable in the medium of Caco-2 cells exposed to hypoxia or overexpressing HIF-1alpha, we hypothesized that P. aeruginosa itself might metabolize adenosine to inosine. Using mutant and parental strains of P. aeruginosa, we demonstrated that P. aeruginosa metabolized adenosine to inosine via adenosine deaminase and that the conditioned medium enhanced the extracellular accumulation of inosine. Together, these results provide evidence that P. aeruginosa can recognize and respond to extracellular end products of intestinal hypoxia that are released after activation of HIF-1alpha. The ability of P. aeruginosa to metabolize adenosine to inosine may represent a subversive microbial virulence strategy that deprives the epithelium of the cytoprotective actions of adenosine.AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 01/2007; 292(1):G134-42. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study the early faecal microbiota in very low-birth weight infants (VLBW, <1500 g), possible associations between faecal microbiota and faecal calprotectin (f-calprotectin) and to describe the faecal microbiota in cases with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) before diagnosis. Stool samples from the first weeks of life were analysed in 48 VLBW infants. Bacterial cultures were performed and f-calprotectin concentrations were measured. In three NEC cases, cultures were performed on stool samples obtained before diagnosis. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were often identified in the first stool sample, 55% and 71% of cases, respectively within the first week of life. A positive correlation between lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and volume of enteral feed was found. Other bacteria often identified were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphyloccus sp. F-calprotectin was not associated with any bacterial species. All NEC cases had an early colonization of LAB. Prior to onset of disease, all cases had a high colonization of non-E. coli Gram-negative species. In contrast to the previous studies in VLBW infants, we found an early colonization with LAB. We speculate that this may be due to early feeding of non-pasteurized breast milk.Acta Paediatrica 09/2009; 98(11):1762-7. · 2.07 Impact Factor
Article: Agent-based dynamic knowledge representation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence activation in the stressed gut: Towards characterizing host-pathogen interactions in gut-derived sepsis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is a growing realization that alterations in host-pathogen interactions (HPI) can generate disease phenotypes without pathogen invasion. The gut represents a prime region where such HPI can arise and manifest. Under normal conditions intestinal microbial communities maintain a stable, mutually beneficial ecosystem. However, host stress can lead to changes in environmental conditions that shift the nature of the host-microbe dialogue, resulting in escalation of virulence expression, immune activation and ultimately systemic disease. Effective modulation of these dynamics requires the ability to characterize the complexity of the HPI, and dynamic computational modeling can aid in this task. Agent-based modeling is a computational method that is suited to representing spatially diverse, dynamical systems. We propose that dynamic knowledge representation of gut HPI with agent-based modeling will aid in the investigation of the pathogenesis of gut-derived sepsis. An agent-based model (ABM) of virulence regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was developed by translating bacterial and host cell sense-and-response mechanisms into behavioral rules for computational agents and integrated into a virtual environment representing the host-microbe interface in the gut. The resulting gut milieu ABM (GMABM) was used to: 1) investigate a potential clinically relevant laboratory experimental condition not yet developed--i.e. non-lethal transient segmental intestinal ischemia, 2) examine the sufficiency of existing hypotheses to explain experimental data--i.e. lethality in a model of major surgical insult and stress, and 3) produce behavior to potentially guide future experimental design--i.e. suggested sample points for a potential laboratory model of non-lethal transient intestinal ischemia. Furthermore, hypotheses were generated to explain certain discrepancies between the behaviors of the GMABM and biological experiments, and new investigatory avenues proposed to test those hypotheses. Agent-based modeling can account for the spatio-temporal dynamics of an HPI, and, even when carried out with a relatively high degree of abstraction, can be useful in the investigation of system-level consequences of putative mechanisms operating at the individual agent level. We suggest that an integrated and iterative heuristic relationship between computational modeling and more traditional laboratory and clinical investigations, with a focus on identifying useful and sufficient degrees of abstraction, will enhance the efficiency and translational productivity of biomedical research.Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 09/2011; 8:33. · 1.86 Impact Factor