Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signals through multisubunit receptor complex consisting of RET tyrosine kinase and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored coreceptor called GDNF family receptor alpha1 (GFRalpha1). In the current study, we cloned a human SEP1 gene as a GDNF-inducible gene using human neuroblastoma cells that express RET and GFRalpha1. The induction of the SEP1 gene showed two peaks at 0.5-2 h and 24-48 h after GDNF stimulation by Northern blotting and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The late induction was also confirmed at protein levels by Western blotting with anti-SEP1 antibody. Immunostaining revealed that the expression of the SEP1 protein was detected in cell body, elongated neurites and growth cone-like structure of neuroblastoma cells treated with GDNF. In addition, we found a high level of SEP1 expression in neurons of the dorsal root and superior cervical ganglia and motor neurons of the spinal cord of mice in which RET is also expressed. SEP1 was co-immunoprecipitated with alpha- and beta-tubulins from the lysate of mouse brain. These results thus suggested that SEP1 is a GDNF-inducible and microtubule-associated protein that may play a role in the nervous system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurons are highly polarized cells that extend long processes, the axons and dendrites, to form contacts with target cells. The formation and maintenance of this specialized morphology relies on the assembly of an organized microtubule array that is the predominant component of the neuronal cytoskeleton. During this process there is an evolution in the composition and dynamics of microtubules, resulting in stable microtubule bundles that provide structural support and function in intracellular transport along the axon. In this essay we provide an overview of the mechanisms regulating the synthesis and assembly of tubulin in differentiating neurons with particular attention to the roles of multiple tubulin isotypes, posttranslational modifications of tubulin, and microtubule-associated proteins. We conclude that, ultimately, the developmental regulation of microtubules in neurons may require the coordinated expression and posttranslational modifications of tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins to provide biochemical forms that favour specific interactions, each combination conferring distinctive dynamic and functional properties.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hSEP1 gene is the human homolog of yeast SEP1. Yeast SEP1 is a multifunctional gene that regulates a variety of nuclear and cytoplasmic functions including homologous recombination, meiosis, telomere maintenance, RNA metabolism and microtubule assembly. The function of hSEP1 is not known. We show loss or reduced expression of hSEP1 messenger RNA (mRNA) in three of four primary osteogenic sarcoma (OGS)-derived cell lines and in eight of nine OGS biopsy specimen. In addition, we find a heterozygous missense mutation (Valine(1484)>Alanine) at a conserved amino acid in the primary OGS-derived cell line U2OS. Importantly, we identified a homozygous missense mutation involving a CG-dinucleotide leading to a change in a conserved amino acid, aspartic acid(1137) >asparagine, in the primary OGS-derived cell line, TE85. hSEP1 mRNA expression was nearly undetectable in TE85 and low in U2OS cell lines. None of these mutations were identified in 20 normal samples consisting of bone, cartilage and fibroblast. The hSEP1 gene is located in chromosome 3 at 3q25-26.1 between markers D3S1309 and D3S1569. An adjacent locus defined by the polymorphic markers D3S1212 and D3S1245 has previously been reported to undergo loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at a >70% frequency in OGS and claimed to harbor an important tumor suppressor gene in osteosarcoma. The homozygous mutation in the hSEP1 mRNA in TE85 cell line suggest that this gene itself is subject to LOH. Taken together, these results suggest that hSEP1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in OGS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stanniocalcin (STC) is a glycoprotein hormone originally found in bony fish, in which it regulates calcium/phosphate homeostasis and protects against hypercalcemia. The recently characterized human STC shows about 70% homology with fish STC. We previously reported a constitutive expression of STC in terminally differentiated neurons. Here, we show that exposure of human neural-crest-derived cell line Paju to hypercalcemic culture medium induced expression of STC. Treatment of Paju cells with recombinant human STC increased their uptake of inorganic phosphate. Paju cells expressing STC by cDNA transfection displayed increased resistance to ischemic challenge and to elevated intracellular free calcium induced by treatment with thapsigargin. An up-regulated and redistributed expression of STC was observed in neurons surrounding the core of acute infarcts in human and rat brains. Given that mobilization and influx of calcium is considered a main neurotoxic mechanism following ischemia, our results suggest that the altered expression of STC contributes to the protection of cerebral neurons against hypoxic/ischemic damage. Manipulation of the STC expression may therefore offer a therapeutic approach to limit the injury after ischemic brain insults.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2000; 97(7):3637-42. DOI:10.1073/pnas.070045897 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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