Tracheal drug administration is a route for drug delivery during cardiopulmonary resuscitation when intravenous access is not immediately available. However, tracheal adrenaline (epinephrine) injection has been recently shown to be associated with detrimental decrease in blood pressure. This was attributed to exaggerated early beta2 mediated effects unopposed by alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that endobronchial adrenaline administration is associated with better drug absorption, which may abolish the deleterious drop of blood pressure associated with tracheal drug administration.
To determine haemodynamic variables after endobronchial adrenaline administration in a non-arrest canine model.
Prospective, randomized, laboratory study.
Adrenaline (0.02, 0.05, 0.1 mg/kg) diluted with normal saline was injected into the bronchial tree of five anaesthetized dogs. Injection of 10-ml saline served as control. Heart rate, blood pressure and arterial blood gases were monitored for 60 min after drug instillation. The protocol was repeated after 1 week.
Adrenaline at a dose of 0.02 mg/kg produced only a minor initial decrease in diastolic (from 90 +/- 5 to 78 +/- 3 mmHg, P=0.05), and mean blood pressure (from 107 +/- 4 to 100 +/- 3 mmHg, P=0.05), in all dogs. This effect lasted less then 30 s following the drug administration. In contrast, higher adrenaline doses (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) produced an immediate increase in diastolic (from 90 +/- 5 to 120 +/- 7 mmHg; and from 90 +/- 5 to 170 +/- 6 mmHg, respectively), and mean blood pressure (from 107 +/- 4 to 155 +/- 10 mmHg; and from 107 +/- 4 to 219 +/- 6 mmHg, respectively). All adrenaline doses resulted in an immediate increase in systolic blood pressure and pulse. Endobronchial administration of saline (control) affected none of the haemodynamic variables.
In a non-arrest model, endobronchial adrenaline administration, as opposed to the effect of tracheal adrenaline, produced only a minor decrease in diastolic and mean blood pressure. We suggest that endobronchial adrenaline administration should be investigated further in a CPR low-flow model when maintaining adequate diastolic pressure may be crucial for survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatrics en Noviembre del 2005 7,8 . El soporte vital pediátrico (SVP) Working Party del ERC considerando tanto esta guía como la literatura científica al respecto, ha recomendado ciertos cambios en las guías de ERC y SVP. Estos cambios son los que se presentan en este documento. Cambios en las guías Estos cambios han venido a modificar las guías en respuesta a nuevos datos científicamente convincentes, simplificando, en lo posible, tanto su enseñanza como su retención. Como antes, la elaboración de esta guía continúa basándose específicamente en datos basados en la evidencia en reanimación pediátrica cualificados, aunque algunas de las conclusiones se han obtenido de trabajos en animales y datos extrapolados de resultados obtenidos en adultos.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: our rhythms produce pulseless cardiac arrest: ventricular fibrillation (VF), rapid ventricular tachycardia (VT), pulseless electrical activity (PEA), and asystole. Survival from these arrest rhythms requires both basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS). The foundation of ACLS care is good BLS care, beginning with prompt high-quality bystander CPR and, for VF/pulse- less VT, attempted defibrillation within minutes of collapse. For victims of witnessed VF arrest, prompt bystander CPR and early defibrillation can significantly increase the chance for survival to hospital discharge. In comparison, typical ACLS therapies, such as insertion of advanced airways and pharmacologic support of the circulation, have not been shown to increase rate of survival to hospital discharge. This section details the general care of a patient in cardiac arrest and provides an overview of the ACLS Pulseless Arrest Algorithm. Access for Medications: Correct Priorities During cardiac arrest, basic CPR and early defibrillation are of primary importance, and drug administration is of second- ary importance. Few drugs used in the treatment of cardiac arrest are supported by strong evidence. After beginning CPR and attempting defibrillation, rescuers can establish intrave- nous (IV) access, consider drug therapy, and insert an advanced airway.
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