tRNA hopping: effects of mutant tRNAs.
ABSTRACT Movement of tRNA and mRNA through the ribosome is coupled. However, selection for suppression of a -1 frameshift mutation in Escherichia coli has yielded a class of mutant tRNAs that can violate this mechanism and "hop" or disengage from their cognate codons and re-pair downstream in the mRNA. Previously described tRNA mutants of this class included those with insertions in the anticodon of tRNA(Val)1. This report describes further tRNA(Val)1 alterations that enhance hopping; these include a novel insertion in the anticodon loop, base substitutions in the anticodon stem and a base deletion in the variable loop. These results indicate that several different features of a tRNA are important for maintaining stable codon-anticodon interactions and coupled movement of tRNA and mRNA during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
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ABSTRACT: Ribosomes hop over a 50-nt coding gap during translation of gene 60 mRNA from bacteriophage T4. This event occurs with near-unitary efficiency when gene 60-lacZ fusions are expressed in Escherichia coli. One of the components necessary for this hop is an RNA hairpin structure containing the 5' junction of the 50-nt coding gap. A mutant E. coli was isolated and found to significantly increase hopping when carrying gene 60-lacZ constructs with altered hairpins. The mutation, hop-1, changed Ser93 to Phe in rplI, the gene coding for ribosomal large-subunit protein L9. Ribosomal hopping on a synthetic sequence in the absence of a hairpin was also increased by this mutation. These data suggest that hop-1 may substitute for the function of the hairpin during ribosomal hopping.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1995; 91(26):12525-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Misacylated phenylalanyl-tRNALys, just as lysyl-tRNALys, but not phenylalanyl-tRNAPhe, have been shown to serve as substrates for ribosomal synthesis of polypeptides (polyphenylalanine and polylysine, respectively) in the absence of a template polynucleotide (poly(A)). The conclusion was made that it is the structure of tRNA that determines the ability of the aminoacyl-tRNALys to participate in peptide elongation on ribosomes without codon-anticodon interactions.FEBS Letters 10/1986; 206(1):142-6. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Proton NMR analyses have been made to elucidate the conformational characteristics of modified nucleotides as found in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA [derivatives of 5-methyl-2-thiouridine 5'-monophosphate (pxm5s2U) and derivatives of 5-hydroxyuridine 5'-monophosphate (pxo5U)]. In pxm5s2U, the C3'-endo form is extraordinarily more stable than the C2'-endo form for the ribose ring, because of the combined effects of the 2-thiocarbonyl group and the 5-substituent. By contrast, in pxo5U, the C2'-endo form is much more stable than the C3'-endo form, because of the interaction between the 5-substituent and the 5'-phosphate group. The enthalpy differences between the C2'-endo form and the C3'-endo form have been obtained as 1.1, -0.7, and 0.1 kcal/mol (1 cal = 4.184 J) for pxm5s2U, pxo5U, and unmodified uridine 5'-monophosphate, respectively. These findings lead to the conclusion that xm5s2U in the first position of the anticodon exclusively takes the C3'-endo form to recognize adenosine (but not uridine) as the third letter of the codon, whereas xo5U takes the C2'-endo form as well as the C3'-endo form to recognize adenosine, guanosine, and uridine as the third letter of the codon on ribosome. Accordingly, the biological significance of such modifications of uridine to xm5s2U/xo5U is in the regulation of the conformational rigidity/flexibility in the first position of the anticodon so as to guarantee the correct and efficient translation of codons in protein biosynthesis.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/1985; 82(15):4905-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor